Skýrslur

Trendy fish with Nordic Flavours, Workshop in Ålesund, Norway 29-30 October 2019

Útgefið:

20/12/2019

Höfundar:

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Ingebrigt Bjørkevoll, Wenche Emblem Larssen

Styrkt af:

AG Fisk 185-2019

Tengiliður

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Verkefnastjóri

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Trendy fish with Nordic Flavours, Workshop in Ålesund, Norway 29-30 October 2019

Salt-curing of cod is an ancient storage method.  Today, salt-curing is not merely a storage method, but a method of producing high quality products of specific characteristics. To promote a product as salt-cured fish, with long tradition, history and strong connection to Nordic livelihoods, it is important to motivate the whole chain, from producers, to retailers, to chefs, to schools and the consumers.

AG-Fisk (Arbejdsgruppen for Fiskerisamarbedet) under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers has provided funding for a project with the aim to increase the knowledge of seafood, such as salt-cured cod, thus contributing to increased respect and thus increased value. The project is led by Matís and one of the project tasks was to organise a workshop in Norway in collaboration with Møreforsking and Klippfiskakademiet in Ålesund. The workshop was co-financed by The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries in Norway. The workshop was held on 29th and 30th of October 2019 and the focus was salted and dried cod. Culinary students together with chefs from Norway, Faroe Islands and Iceland, aimed to develop new trendy dishes with emphasis on Nordic raw materials combined with salted and dried cod. During the workshop, Nordic traditions and history were presented, the different salt fish products and their different sensory properties. The participants tasted different cod products (thawed, lightly salted, desalted salt-cured cod and desalted clip fish) with the aim of analysing the different sensory properties of these products. The results clearly demonstrated the unique sensory properties of salt-cured and clip fish products.

Nordic chefs gave talks of their experiences, thoughts, visions and ideas for Nordic raw materials, to set the scene for the work ahead. Group work was focused on analysing opportunities and barriers, todays status and ideas to increase consumption of traditional products, product ideas to make salt-cured and clip fish more known and attractive in home markets. One of the main targets was to increase the consumption among young people by inspiring them to create new, trendy recipes and dishes that they would like. Based on this, innovative dishes were made and evaluated during the workshop. The variety in the dishes, clearly demonstrated the enormous potentials of this traditional raw material, to be used in delicious trendy innovative dishes, from simple and easily prepared to challenging and ambitious.

The group discussions showed that traditions were considered a strength but a lack of ready to cook and ready to eat meals as well as changes in consumption habits were considered a threat. This kind of information is important when setting the scene for the future of salt-cured fish, both in home markets and export markets.  The Norwegian participants were familiar with salt-cured fish and clip fish and it was not uncommon to prepare such dishes at home, and some variety was available in the supermarkets. However, to increase product variety and increased consumption of traditional Nordic foods such as salted fish, it is important to work with kids, both at home and at schools. It is of great importance to educate them about Nordic food and involve them in food preparation, both at home and in school. The emphasis on sustainability, health and positive climate impact, as well as adapting food trends from all over the world, can be used to inspire new innovative dishes made from traditional raw materials such as salted fish.

Emphasis must be placed on increasing knowledge among chefs, as well as consumers, of the different products made of salted fish, such as lightly salted cod, fully salt-cured and clip fish, as the characteristics of these products are very different. How consumers, and not the least young consumers, are to be educated and motivated to consume such dishes needs thorough consideration. Newer means of communication deserve attention, with focus on how the young people seek, find and receive information.

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Holding of Arctic char in a RAS transport system

Útgefið:

16/12/2019

Höfundar:

Guðmundur Stefánsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Styrkt af:

EIT Food

Tengiliður

Guðmundur Stefánsson

Fagsviðsstjóri

gudmundur.stefansson@matis.is

Holding of Arctic char in a RAS transport system

In September 2019 two live holding trials with Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) were carried out at Matís where the fish was kept for up to eight days in a RAS holding and transport system developed by Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. The RAS system, which recirculated the water, controled the pH and removed accumulated ammonia, was set up in a 40 feet reefer tank to control the temperature at 4°C. The project was funded by EIT food and the participants were Technion and Matís.

The results show that Arctic char could be held at a density of 80 kg/m3 at 4°C for 8 days in the RAS system, without adverse effects on mortality. Moreover, no differences were found in the sensory quality (flavour, odour, appearance and texture) of the stored fish compared with fish before it was placed in the RAS system. The stored fish had however more gaping, higher cooking yield and marginally lighter colour than fish before placing in the system. 

However, a bio-load of 135-145 kg/m3 Arctic char in the RAS storage and holding system led to a high mortality. Moreover, on slaughter the surviving fish had adverse sensory quality as indicated by loss of characteristic flavour and odour as well as firmer, drier and tougher texture. The fish had a high incidence of gaping, a high cooking yield and showed evidence of deformation on cooking.

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Neytendakönnun um saltfisk

Útgefið:

30/08/2019

Höfundar:

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Styrkt af:

AG Fisk, AVS rannsóknasjóður

Tengiliður

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Skynmatsstjóri

adalheiduro@matis.is

Neytendakönnun um saltfisk

Löng hefð er fyrir vinnslu saltfisks hér á landi en áður fyrr var öðru fremur notast við saltið til að lengja geymsluþol fiskins. Í dag telst saltfiskur sælkeravara sem nýtur mikilla vinsælda víða um heim, ekki síst í Suður-Evrópu, þar sem hefðir og gæði íslenska saltfisksins leika stórt hlutverk. Matís stóð fyrir vinnustofum  með saltfiskframleiðendum og matreiðslumönnum í apríl og maí 2019. Markmiðið með þeim var meðal annars að meta stöðu saltfisks á heimamarkaði. Þar kom fram að afla þyrfti upplýsinga um sýn Íslendinga á saltfiski til að meta betur tækifærin hérlendis. Byggt á niðurstöðum vinnustofanna var framkvæmd vefkönnun með það að markmiði að rannsaka ímynd saltfiskafurða í hugum Íslendinga, almenna þekkingu á saltfiski og sögu hans, og upplifun á saltfiski. Einnig var könnuð neyslutíðni á saltfiski, léttsöltuðum fiski og nætursöltuðum fiski, sem og viðhorf til saltfisks samanborið við léttsaltaðan- og nætursaltaðan fisk.  Könnunin var framkvæmd í maí 2019 og birtist 17.000 notendum Facebook, 18 ára og eldri. Alls luku 505 manns könnuninni.

Mikill munur var á svörum þátttakenda eftir aldri. Niðurstöðurnar sýna að neysla á bæði fiski og saltfiski fer minnkandi með lækkandi aldri. Einungis um 29% þátttakenda á aldrinum 18-29 ára borða saltfisk einu sinni á ári eða oftar en samsvarandi hlutfall fyrir elsta hópinn, 60-70 ára, er um 94%. Helsta ástæða þess að þátttakendur borða ekki saltfisk er að þeim finnst hann ekki góður. Aðrar orsakir eru að hann er of saltur, skortur á framboði, að það sé lítil hefð fyrir saltfiski, og að ferskur fiskur sé frekar valinn. Almennt voru viðhorf til saltfisks nokkuð jákvæð og upplifun þeirra sem hafa keypt saltfisk á veitingastað, fiskbúð og matvöruverslun góð. Hins vegar eru yngri þátttakendur almennt neikvæðari fyrir saltfiski og líklegri til að finnast bragð af saltfiski vont en þeim sem eldri eru. Þekking og áhugi á saltfiski minnkar einnig með lækkandi aldri og á það sama við um kauptíðni á saltfiski, léttsöltuðum fiski og nætursöltuðum fiski. Niðurstöður gefa til kynna að mismunandi smekkur sé eftir aldri á því hversu saltur saltfiskur á að vera. Eldri þátttakendur eru líklegri til að vilja hafa saltfisk vel saltan og finnst hann sjaldnar of saltur en þeim sem yngri eru.

Saltfiskurinn hefur verið samofinn sögu Íslendinga og matarmenningu í árhundruð. Niðurstöður úr þessari könnun sýna hins vegar minnkandi þekkingu, áhuga og neyslu á saltfiski í yngri aldurshópum. Þessi þróun getur skýrst af auknu úrvali matvara, breyttum smekk, viðhorfum og venjum. Líklegt er að ímynd saltfisks sem gæðavöru eigi undir högg að sækja og að miklar breytingar séu að verða á neyslu saltfisks meðal Íslendinga. Til að ýta undir neyslu á saltfiski þarf að kynna hann betur og gera sýnilegri, ekki síst meðal yngri aldurshópa, hvort heldur sem er í mötuneytum, matvöruverslunum, fiskbúðum eða veitingastöðum.

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Aukin gæði og stöðugleiki frosinna síldarafurða / Increased quality and stability of frozen herring products

Útgefið:

30/08/2019

Höfundar:

Magnea Karlsdóttir, Huong Thi Thu Dang, María Guðjónsdóttir, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Sigurjón Arason

Styrkt af:

AVS R&D Fund

Tengiliður

Sigurjón Arason

Yfirverkfræðingur

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Aukin gæði og stöðugleiki frosinna síldarafurða / Increased quality and stability of frozen herring products

Freezing and frozen storage has proven to be an effective method to preserve and prolong the storage life of seafood products. Production of frozen products provides all year around product availability although the catching is seasonal. There are several factors that can affect the quality and stability of frozen fish products, including the state of the raw material, processing methods and storage conditions.

The aim of the study was to explore how the physicochemical properties of frozen herring fillets are affected regarding the state of the raw material during processing as well as storage conditions. Atlantic herring was processed and frozen pre- and post-rigor and stored at stable (-25 °C) and abused storage conditions. To investigate the storage stability and physical properties of the fillets, thawing drip, cooking yield and colour were evaluated, as well as proximate composition, fatty acid composition, pH and lipid degradation of the light and the dark muscle.

The study demonstrated the importance of stable and controlled temperature during storage and transportation of frozen herring products. Processing and freezing pre-rigor, in combination with stable storage conditions, was shown to be beneficial in terms of preventing lipid oxidation, as well as reducing thawing loss and maintaining the cooking yield of the herring fillets.

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Hitastigsbreytingar við vinnslu, flutning og geymslu á frosinni síld / Temperature profiles during processing, transportation and storage of frozen herring products

Útgefið:

30/08/2019

Höfundar:

Magnea Karlsdóttir, Finnur Jónasson, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Sigurjón Arason

Styrkt af:

AVS R&D Fund

Tengiliður

Sigurjón Arason

Yfirverkfræðingur

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Hitastigsbreytingar við vinnslu, flutning og geymslu á frosinni síld / Temperature profiles during processing, transportation and storage of frozen herring products

The main objective of the project was to maximize the qualiry and value of herring products. Quality and stability of frocen herring products seasonally and impact of pre-cooling, freezing and storage condition were explored. The results will not only lead to a less decrease in quality due to storage and transportation, but also increase understanding on connection between product defect and their influence on the raw material from catch to market.

The results showed thar frozen herring products didn‘t get enough cooling through the process, from production to export, and in some cases the variation was too much. The freezing planti n Iceland was good, and all the pallets was kept at right temperature. The problem is, when they were taken out of the freezing storage in Iceland, the cooling was not sufficient, which was necessary to maintain low temperature. It is difficult to prevent heat stress when exporting frozen product.

The results of the project indicated that the temprature in freezing trawls was stable during the sailing. Also the results indicated that it is a need for improvements in the freezing plant in Poland, where the temperature in freezing storage is higher compared to Iceland. Transportation in containers was much better than in freezing trawlers, but much more expensive.

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Efnasamsetning sölva – Árstíðarsveiflur

Útgefið:

26/08/2019

Höfundar:

Þóra Valsdóttir, Karl Gunnarsson

Styrkt af:

Verkefnissjóður sjávarútvegsins, AVS

Tengiliður

Þóra Valsdóttir

Verkefnastjóri

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Efnasamsetning sölva – Árstíðarsveiflur

Markmið rannsóknarinnar var að kanna magn næringarefna, steinefna og snefilefna í sölvum eftir árstíma til að meta hvenær best sé að uppskera þau m.t.t. næringarsjónarmiða. Tekin voru sýni á tveimur stöðum, Tjaldanesi við Saurbæ í Dalasýslu og Herdísarvík við Selvog á Reykjanesi á tímabilinu frá október 2011 til apríl 2013.

Árstíðarsveiflur greindust í innihaldi næringarefna í sölvum bæði í Herdísarvík og Tjaldanesi og fylgdu þær svo til sama ferli. Snemma vors náði magn trefja, próteina, fitu, ösku og vatns hámarki. Mælingar bentu einnig til árstíðarsveiflna í sumum þeirra steinefna og snefilefna sem mæld voru; kalíum, fosfór, joð, selen, kadmín og blý. Þungmálmar voru innan viðmiðunarmarka að undanskildu kadmín á veturna.

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Áhrif dauðastirðnunar á fiskgæði ll

Útgefið:

15/08/2019

Höfundar:

Gunnar Þórðarson, Sigurjón Arason

Styrkt af:

AVS Rannsóknasjóður í sjávarútvegi (R 17 019-17)

Tengiliður

Gunnar Þórðarson

Svæðisstjóri

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

Áhrif dauðastirðnunar á fiskgæði ll

Tilgangur rannsóknarinnar var annars vegar að rannsaka áhrif ofurkælingar á dauðstirðnunarferli þorsk- og laxaflaka og bera saman við hefðbundna kælingu; og hins vegar að skoða hvort flökun á mismunandi tímasetningu í dauðastirðnunarferli (fyrir dauðastirðnun, í dauðastirðnun og eftir að ferlinu lýkur) hefði á afurðagæði. Fyrir lax var gerð fortilraun sem megintilraunin var byggð á, en í þorski var tilraun gerð á villtum þorski og eldisfiski.

Ofurkæling á þorski er miðuð við kælingu niður í -0,8 °C og laxi í -1,2 °C en hefðbundin kæling er miðuð við 0 °C fyrir báðar tegundir. Skoðaður var mismunur milli hópa og einnig borinn saman mismunur innan hópa. Lítill munur innan hópa bendir til nákvæmari og trúverðugri niðurstöðu.

Niðurstöður úr könnun sem var framkvæmd af skynmatshópi sýna að áhrif ofurkælingar eru töluverð þar sem um minni samdrátt er að ræða í dauðastirðnunarferlinu, og áhrif á gæði því minni. Munur er milli villts þorsks og eldisþorsks enda þekkt að vatnsinnihald milli fruma er minna í eldisþroski en villtum. Áhugavert gæti verið að skoða muninn milli eldislax og villts lax, en það var utan við markmið þessarar rannsóknar.

Draga má þá ályktun að með ofurkælingu væri hægt að vinna lax fyrir dauðastirðnun án gæðarýrnunar, sem gæti skipt máli við markaðssetningu á ferskum afurðum í framtíðinni, þar sem hægt væri að fullvinna laxinn strax við slátrun og auka þannig geymsluþol á erlendum mörkuðum.

Eitt af markmiðum verkefnisins var að útbúa kynningarefni um dauðastirðnunarferlið og áhrif þess á gæði afurða fyrir framleiðendur á laxi og þorski á Íslandi sem gæti gagnast þeim í framtíðinni við að takast á við nýjar áskoranir í framleiðslu á hágæða afurðum.

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Mælingar á eiginleikum folaldakjöts

Útgefið:

03/07/2019

Höfundar:

Eva Margrét Jónudóttir, Guðjón Þorkelsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Óli Þór Hilmarsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Styrkt af:

Framleiðnisjóður landbúnaðarins

Tengiliður

Eva Margrét Jónudóttir

Sérfræðingur

evamargret@matis.is

Mælingar á eiginleikum folaldakjöts

Sala hestakjöts innanlands er aðeins um helmingur framleiðslu og á meðan kjötneysla fer vaxandi með auknum hagvexti á það ekki við hestakjöt. Hross eru alla jafna ekki ræktuð sérstaklega til kjötframleiðslu heldur er kjötið hliðarafurð reiðmennskuræktar og lyfjaframleiðslu úr merarblóði. Vinsældir reiðmennsku og framleiðsla lyfja munu ólíklega koma til með að dragast saman næstu árin og því er full ástæða til þess að gera hestakjöti hátt undir höfði og koma þannig í veg fyrir frekari afsetningarvandamál í framtíðinni. Hestakjöt hefur verið í markaðsherferð erlendis undanfarin misseri, þá sérstaklega í Asíu en upplýsingar skortir um eiginleika þess. Meginmarkmið verkefnisins var að safna saman og koma á framfæri upplýsingum sem styðja við og greiða leið markaðstarfs og sölu á hestakjöti. Afurðir af þremur folöldum sem slátrað var 03.12.18 voru rannsakaðar. Hitasírita var komið fyrir í kæli og innst í þykkustu vöðvum skrokkanna. Sýrustigssírita var stungið í hryggvöðva þeirra eftir slátrun. Allir skrokkar voru úrbeinaðir í sláturhúsinu á Hellu og vigtaðir eftir skiptingu í vöðva, vinnsluefni, bein og fitu. Hverjum vöðva var skipt upp í 4 hluta. Sá fyrsti fór í litmælingu, annar í efnamælingu, þriðji í skynmat og sá fjórði í skurðkraftsmælingu og mælingu á suðurýrnun. Þar að auki voru send sýni til greininga á gerlafjölda sem og Listeríu bakteríum. Það tók um 17 klst fyrir sýrustig að falla í hryggvöðvum eftir slátrun og það tók um sólahring á kæli eftir slátrun fyrir skrokk að ná fullkomnum umhverfishita við 5°C. Mælingar á elduðum vöðvum staðfesta að folaldakjöt er meyrt kjöt. Röð eftir vaxandi skurðkrafti (seigju) er: Lundir < kúlottusteik < bógvöðvi < mjaðmasteik < læristunga < hryggvöðvi < klumpur < ytrilæri < brisket < innanlærisvöðvi. Suðurýrnun við eldun var um 25%. Listería moinocytogenes mældist aldrei og öll sýni voru undir viðmiðum um örverufjölda. Þráabragð var almennt lítið eða ekki mælanlegt en eykst hlutfallslega meira með hækkandi inannvöðvafitu þegar líður á geymslutíma. Samkvæmt litmælingum er folaldakjöt svipað ljóst en aðeins rauðara og gulara en lambakjöt og blæbrigðamunur var milli vöðva. Eftir 14 daga í geymslu varð kjötið örlítið rauðara/gulara. Vöðvar sem nýtast sem heilir vöðvar af skrokk eru ekki nema 34,7% af heildarfallþunga. Vinnsluefni er 28,9% sem segir okkur að hlutfall þess sem er að jafnaði verið að nýta af fallþunganum er 63,6%. Hestakjöt hafi allt til brunns að bera til að vera selt sem hágæða kjötvara og ekkert ætti því að vera til fyrirstöðu að nýta betur þessa dýrmætu auðlind.

The main objective was to gather and disseminate information that will support marketing of equine meat. Meat and offals from three foals were analysed. Temperature was monitored in chiller and carcasses after slaughter and pH loggers were placed in the loin muscle (m. longissimus dorsi). Yield was measured by cutting the carcasses into muscles, triminngs, fat and bone the day after slaughter. Each muscle was cut into 4 parts.The first was used for measuring CIELAB L, a, b* colour. The second was analysed for nutritional value. The third was cooked and analysed for sensory properties and the fourth cooked and analysed for Warner Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. In addition, samples were submitted for analysis of bacterial numbers as well as Listeria bacteria. It took about 17 hours for the pH to drop in the loin muscles after slaughter and it took about 24 hours for the carcasses to reach chiller temperature of 5 ° C. Shear force analysis confirmed the tenderness of foal meat. Cooking loss was about 25%. Listeria monocytogenes was not detected, and all samples were within acceptable limits for microbial counts. Generally, rancid flavour was little or not detected but increased proportionally with increasing intramuscular fat and storage time. Foal meat is similar as or lighter but more reddish and yellow than lamb met and there are slight differences between muscles. After 14 days of storage, the meat became slightly redder / yellower. Whole muscles were only 34.7% of carcass weight. Meat trimmings were 28.9%. The total yield was therefore 63,5%. Foal meat is a high-quality meat product and there are opportunities to market as such, and also to develop new products from the trimmings.

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Nordic Centre of Excellence Network in Fishmeal and Fish oil

Útgefið:

11/06/2019

Höfundar:

Marvin Ingi Einarsson, Alfred Jokumsen, Anne Mette Bæk, Charlotte Jacobsen, Søren Anker Pedersen, Tor Andreas Samuelsen, Jóhannes Pálsson, Odd Eliasen, Ola Flesland

Styrkt af:

AG-fund, EUfishmeal

Nordic Centre of Excellence Network in Fishmeal and Fish oil

The main objective of this work was to summarise current knowledge on fishmeal and fish oil as well as identify the research needs and create a roadmap for future industry-driven research. The main conclusion was that the quality of raw material, fishmeal and – oil are not yet well defined. The real focus by the industry has mainly been limited to nutrients, such as proteins and fats and other components that makeup fishmeal. There has been less focus on the health benefits of dietary contents of fishmeal and –oil and the relationship between processing methods and the nutritional and technical properties of fishmeal. In addition, to proactively strengthen the market position and competitiveness, it is crucial for the industry to achieve a common understanding of the needs of their customers in line with a clear profile of the benefits of their products. A communication strategy as well as a research strategy is needed.

Finally, the identity of the industry needs to be clear and transparent to promote a story about the industry to provide a clear and positive image of the industry to be communicated to the society. This means, that a communication strategy as well as a research strategy must be established, as there is a lack of communication along the value chain from the industry to the consumers. There is still a lack of understanding by the consumers of why fishmeal is produced, the reasons must be communicated in such a way that it reaches the average consumer.

The industry members are interested in moving forward to sustain the future growth of the industry. Fishmeal and fish oil production has been prosperous for a very long time, but to remain so, cooperation among all stakeholders is crucial for continued progress.

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Actions for sustainable bioeconomy in the West Nordic region

Útgefið:

01/06/2019

Höfundar:

Þóra Valsdóttir, Bryndís Björnsdóttir

Styrkt af:

Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA)

Tengiliður

Þóra Valsdóttir

Verkefnastjóri

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Actions for sustainable bioeconomy in the West Nordic region

The purpose of the West Nordic Bioeconomy Panel is to identify common key issues of importance for the West Nordic region, identify opportunities, advice industry, governments and the public, as well as promote common key issues and policies. The West Nordic Region includes the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Iceland. The goal is to suggest a sound strategy for the West Nordic region in order to maintain and strengthen its bioeconomy, as well as to communicate that strategy. The West Nordic Bioeconomy Panel was identified as an action in the final report “Future Opportunities for Bioeconomy in the West Nordic Countries” (Smáradóttir et al, 2015). The work of the West Nordic Bioeconomy panel is being funded by the Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA). Further information can be found at www.wnbioeconomy.com. This document outlines the following identified five strategic priorities and proposed related key actions by the West Nordic Bioeconomy panel and stakeholder platforms, with the aim of enhancing innovation and long term sustainable value creation within the regions bioeconomy.

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