The thermophile Rhodothermus marinus produces extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) that forms a distinct cellular capsule. Here, the first data on EPS production in strains DSM4252T and MAT493 are reported and compared. Cultures of both strains, supplemented with either glucose, sucrose, lactose or maltose showed that the EPS were produced both in the exponential and stationary growth phase and that production in the exponential phase was boosted by maltose supplementation, while stationary phase production was boosted by lactose. The latter was higher, resulting in 8.8 (DSM4252T) and 13.7 mg EPS/g cell dry weight (MAT493) in cultures in marine broth supplemented with 10 g/L lactose. The EPSs were heteropolymeric with an average molecular weight of 8 × 104 Da and different monosaccharides, including arabinose and xylose. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl, N-acetyl, amine, and sulfate ester groups, showing that R. marinus produces unusual sulfated EPS with high arabinose and xylose content.