Reports

Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and superchilling on the shelf life of fresh cod (Gadus morhua) loins of different degrees of freshness at packaging

Published:

01/09/2008

Authors:

María Guðjónsdóttir, Hannes Magnússon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Björn Margeirsson, Hélène L. Lauzon, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Research Fund, Rannís Technology Development Fund

contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and superchilling on the shelf life of fresh cod (Gadus morhua) loins of different degrees of freshness at packaging

The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of aerated packaging (MAP) and supercooling on the quality changes and shelf life of cod pieces of fresh raw material that was processed and packaged after 2 and 7 days of fishing. The experiment was carried out in collaboration with Samherji, Dalvík and Norðlenska, Akureyri in October and November 2007. The fish was stored whole in ice until packing at -0.2 ± 0.1 ° C (2 days from fishing) and -0.2 ± 0.2 ° C (7 days from fishing). The neck pieces were cut in half and then packed (350-550 g) in an airtight container. The composition of the gas mixture was as follows: 50% CO2, 5% O2 and 45% N2. Packaged cod pieces were stored in cold storage at -0.6 ± 1.4 ° C and samples were taken over a 3-week storage period and evaluated by sensory evaluation, microbial and chemical measurements. The age of the raw material during packaging had a clear effect on the sensory evaluation of the pieces. Packing after 2 days led to a prolongation of the freshness symptoms in front of storage. In addition, signs of damage appeared much later than in bites packed 7 days after fishing. The shelf life of pieces after packing on day 7 can be roughly estimated at 4-8 days, but at least 19 days in pieces packed on day 2. This short shelf life of pieces from day 7 can be explained by the development of microbial flora and the formation of volatile pesticides as well as the temperature profile of whole fish before packaging. The effect of different packing dates had a significant effect on the microflora. Thus, the total number of microorganisms was much smaller in pieces packed after 2 days than on day 7 (log 3.7 vs 5.4 / g). This difference can largely be attributed to the varying number of Photobacterium phosphoreum (Pp) in the flesh immediately after packing, but it was not detected during the previous packing on the 3rd day of the experiment (below log 1.3 / g) and on day 8 the number was only log 2.4 / g. On that day, the number of Pp was 1000x higher in pieces packed on day 7 and they were predominant throughout the storage period in this group. On day 8, the number of other pests (H2S-producing bacteria and pseudomonads) was somewhat higher (Δ log 0.6-0.7 / g) in this group compared to the group packed on day 2. These results confirm that P. phosphoreum is one of the main damaging microorganisms in gas-packed cod pieces but also in chilled, whole cod. The results of TVB-N and TMA measurements were in good agreement with microbial measurements, but especially Pp. Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) technology was used to measure relaxation times in samples over the storage period. Significantly higher "relaxation times" were measured in chunks packed after 7 days of fishing than in chunks packed 2 days after fishing. It indicates greater binding of water molecules to the environment in the 7-day bites. This is in line with the generally higher water resistance and water content of those samples over the storage period. Overall, the results show the importance of using the freshest ingredients for MA packaging, thus ensuring higher quality and longer shelf life, which should result in a higher price for the product.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and superchilling on the shelf life and quality changes of fresh loins prepared from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) of different freshness, ie processed 2 or 7 days post catch. The study was performed in cooperation with Samherji (Dalvík, Iceland) and Norðlenska (Akureyri) in October and November 2007. The average fish temperature during storage prior to processing on days 2 and 7 was -0.2 ± 0.1 ° C and -0.2 ± 0.2 ° C, respectively. Cod loins (350-550 g) were packed in trays under modified atmosphere (50% CO2 / 5% O2 / 45% N2), stored at -0.6 ± 1.4 ° C and sampled regularly over a three-week period for sensory, microbiological and chemical analyzes . The results show that the raw material freshness clearly influenced the sensory characteristics of packed loins. Processing 2 days post catch resulted in more prominent freshness sensory characteristics the first days of storage. In addition, sensory indicators of spoilage became evident much later compared to MApacked fillets from raw material processed 5 days later. The expected shelf life of the MA-packed cod loins could be roughly calculated as 4-8 days when processed 7 days post catch, but at least 19 days when the cod was processed 2 days post catch. This reduced shelf life of MAP products processed at a later stage was also explained by the temperature profile of the whole fish prior to processing, microbial development and volatile amine production observed. In fact, the day of packaging had a major effect on the microflora development, with lower total viable counts (TVC) in loins processed earlier in relation to time from catch (log 3.7 vs 5.4 / g). This difference could be linked to large variations in levels of Photobacterium phosphoreum (Pp) in the flesh at processing times, being below detection (log 1.3 / g) 2 days post catch but found to increase to log 2.4 / g in early processed loins 6 days later, in contrast to 1000-fold higher Pp levels in loins processed later. Pp was found to quickly dominate the microflora of loins processed 7 days post catch. Similarly, slightly higher levels (Δ log 0.6- 0.7 / g) of other spoilage bacteria, H2S-producing bacteria and pseudomonads, were found 8 days post catch in loins processed later. These results confirm that P. phosphoreum is one of the main spoilage organisms in cod, unprocessed as MA-processed. TVB-N and TMA production corresponded well to the microbial development, especially counts of P. phosphoreum. Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) was used to measure the relaxation times of the samples during storage. The samples packed 7 days after catch showed significantly higher relaxation times than samples packed 2 days after catch. This indicates stronger bindings of the water molecules to their environment in samples packed at a later stage. This is in agreement with the generally higher water holding capacity and water content in the samples during storage. Finally, the results demonstrated that delaying processing of raw material is undesirable if it is intended to be MA-packed and sold as more valuable products.

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Reports

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effects of supercooling, pickling and gas packaging on the physical and chemical properties of cod muscles

Published:

01/12/2007

Authors:

María Guðjónsdóttir, Hannes Magnússon, Sigurjón Arason, Guðrún Ólafsdóttir, Sigurður Bogason

Supported by:

AVS, Rannís Technology Development Fund, Rannís Research Fund

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effects of supercooling, pickling and gas packaging on the physical and chemical properties of cod muscles

An integrated refrigeration study was carried out on the effect of salting, different packaging methods and salting methods as well as the effect of subcooling on the quality and shelf life of cod muscles. The results show that storage is a more desirable salting method than injection salting from a microbiological point of view and with regard to drip and boiling efficiency. However, if the salinity during storage becomes too high, the muscle will gel. In the experiment, it was not considered to improve the quality of the fish to inject proteins into the muscle in addition to the salt. Microbial growth and the amount of wandering alkali decrease with decreasing temperature, so it is desirable to keep the temperature as low as possible, without the fish freezing. At -4 ° C, the surface of the fish in all groups, regardless of salinity, was frozen and the ice crystal formation increased with storage time. This ice crystal formation took place much more slowly at -2 ° C and is therefore considered a desirable storage temperature for lightly salted cod muscles. Air-packed packaging (MAP) also proved to be a more desirable storage method than foam packaging, as microbial growth and increase in erratic base was slower in the MAP packaging, which led to longer shelf life.

A combined cooling experiment was performed upon the effect of salting, different packaging and salting methods as well as the effect of superchilling on the quality and shelf life of cod muscle. The results show that brining is a better salting method that brine injection in terms of bacterial growth as well as increased yield. On the other hand, if the salt concentration becomes too high, gelation of the muscle proteins begins. The study also showed that injection of proteins along with salt injection did not improve the quality of the muscle. Microflora and the formation of volatile nitrogen bases decreased with lowering temperatures. It is therefore preferred to store fish at as low temperatures as possible, without letting the muscle water freeze. At -4 ° C the water at the muscle surface was frozen in all groups, independent of salt content, and the ice crystallization increased with storage time. This crystallization was much slower at -2 ° C and therefore this temperature is recommended for storage of light salted cod muscle. Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) turned out to be a better packaging method than Styrofoam packaging, since the increase in bacterial growth and volatile nitrogen bases was slower in the MAP. This also lead to increased shelf life.

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Reports

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effect of supercooling, pickling and gas packaging on quality changes and shelf life / Storage trials on cod loins: Effect of superchilling, brining and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on quality changes and sensory shelf-life

Published:

01/05/2007

Authors:

Hannes Magnússon, Hélène L. Lauzon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Ása Þorkelsdóttir, Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir, Emilia Martinsdóttir, Guðrún Ólafsdóttir, María Guðjónsdóttir, Sigurður Bogason, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund, Technology Development Fund (Rannís)

contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effect of supercooling, pickling and gas packaging on quality changes and shelf life / Storage trials on cod loins: Effect of superchilling, brining and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on quality changes and sensory shelf-life

The aim of these experiments was to evaluate the effect of supercooling, aerated packaging (MAP) and brine on quality changes and shelf life of cod pieces. The effects of gas packaging and different storage temperatures on the growth of several pathogens and pointing organisms were also investigated. The experiment was carried out in October 2006 at Samherji in Dalvík. After storage (0.6 and 2% salt), the fish was trimmed and the neck pieces were packed in standard 3 kg foam packs (air packs) and in air-conditioned packaging. The gas mixture was adjusted to 50% CO2, 5% O2 and 45% N2. Three pieces (350- 550g) were placed in each tray with a drying mat. After packing, the samples were placed in Matís freezer simulators set at 0 ° C, -2 ° C and -4 ° C. The samples were examined over a four-week storage period. Sensory evaluation, microbial counts and chemical measurements were used to assess quality changes and shelf life. Pickled (2% salt) fish were stored shorter than uncooked (0.6% salt). A comparison of the number of micro-organisms the day after packing showed that the pickled fish contained ten times more cold-resistant micro-organisms than the non-pickled ones. According to sensory evaluation, the shelf life of the pickled fish at -2 ° C was 12-15 days in both air- and gas-packed pieces. In the blunt fish, the effects of gas packaging and supercooling were evident. The shelf life of air-packed pieces was about 11 days at 0 ° C and 14-15 days at -2 ° C. The shelf life of gas-packed pieces, on the other hand, was about 15 days at 0 ° C and about 21 days at -2 ° C. Supercooling of fresh uncooked fish products in air-conditioned packaging can therefore significantly increase shelf life. Gas packing significantly reduced the growth rate of pathogens and microorganisms at low temperatures. Salmonella was most affected, then Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes the least. Under air conditions, L. monocytogenes grew at -2 ° C, but E. coli began to multiply at 5 ° C and Salmonella at 10 ° C.

The aim of these experiments was to evaluate the effect of superchilling, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and brining on the quality changes and sensory shelf-life of cod loins. The effect of MAP and different storage temperatures on some pathogenic and indicator bacteria was also tested. These experiments were initiated in October 2006 at Samherji, Dalvík. After brining (0.6 and 2% salt) the fish fillets were trimmed, and loins packed on one hand in 3 kg styrofoam boxes (air) and on the other in MA. The gas mixture used was 50% CO2, 5% O2 and 45% N2. Three pieces (350-550 g) were placed in each tray with an absorbent mat. After packaging the samples were placed in 3 coolers at Matís which were adjusted to 0 ° C, -2 ° C and -4 ° C. Samples were examined over a four-week period. Sensory analysis, microbial counts and chemical measurements were used to determine the quality changes and shelf-life. Brined loins had a shorter shelf-life than unbrined (0.6% salt). Comparison on numbers of microorganisms the day after packaging revealed that the brined pieces contained ten times more microbes than the unbrined ones. According to sensory analysis the shelf-life of the brined loins at -2 ° C was 12-15 days for both air- and MA-packed fish. In the unbrined loins the effects of superchilling and MAP were obvious. The shelf-life of air-packed loins was about 11 days at 0 ° C and 14-15 days at -2 ° C. The shelf-life of MA-packed loins was about 15 days at 0 ° C but 21 days at -2 ° C. Superchilling of unbrined fish under MA can therefore increase the keeping quality considerably. MA packaging clearly decreased the growth rate of pathogenic and indicator bacteria at low storage temperatures. Most effects were seen with Salmonella, then Escherichia coli but least with Listeria monocytogenes. In fact, L. monocytogenes could grow at -2 ° C under aerobic conditions, while proliferation of E. coli was first observed at 5 ° C but 10 ° C for Salmonella.

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