A thermophilic, aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, filamentous bacterium, strain PRI-4131T, was isolated from an intertidal hot spring in Isafjardardjup, NW Iceland. The strain grew chemo-organotrophically on various carbohydrates. The temperature range for growth was 40–65 ° C (optimum 55 ° C), the pH range was pH 6.5–9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and the NaCl range was 0–3 % (w / v) (optimum 0.5 %) . Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain PRI-4131T represented a distinct lineage within the class Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi. The highest levels of sequence similarity, about 91 %, were with Caldilinea aerophila STL-6-O1T and Caldilinea tarbellica D1-25-10-4T. Fermentative growth was not observed for strain PRI-4131T, which, in addition to other characteristics, distinguished it from the two Caldilinea species. Owing to both phylogenetic and phenotypic differences from the described members of the class Caldilineae , we propose to accommodate strain PRI-4131T in a novel species in a new genus, Litorilinea aerophila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Litorilinea aerophila is PRI-4131T (= DSM 25763T = ATCC BAA-2444T).