Reports

Product development of dried fish skin for human consumption

Published:

01/11/2014

Authors:

Jón Trausti Kárason, Ragnheiður Sveinþórsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS (V 018-12)

Product development of dried fish skin for human consumption

The aim of this project was to promote the increased utilization of raw materials from catfish processing by developing food from low-value or worthless fish meat. A business plan was made for dried / baked cod skins that would be sold in supermarkets for Icelanders and also as food souvenirs for tourists. A recipe and method were developed so that cod skins could be eaten as a snack or snack similar to Icelanders consuming dried fish. Skin taste tests were performed and a consumer survey was conducted. The result was that the final product of the project was an exciting product that would appeal to people, but when consumed, it was rather dry and unexciting. In addition, the shelf life was short.

The aim of this project was to increase the use of raw materials from fish processing plants through the development of low price or worthless fish skin. A business plan was made for dried / baked fish skin to be sold in supermarkets in Iceland but also for fish skin as food souvenirs. A recipe was developed with a method to make it possible to consume dried fish skin as a snack like Icelandic people like to eat dried fish. The taste was tested and also how this product appeals to people. The result of the project was the final product was an exciting but when people tasted it they thougt it was rather dry an uninteresting. Furthermore the shelf life was short for this type of product.

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Reports

Improved reefer container for fresh fish - Final report

Published:

01/01/2013

Authors:

Sæmundur Elíasson, Björn Margeirsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund, AVS‐Ref.No .: R11 093‐11

contact

Sæmundur Elíasson

Project Manager

saemundur.eliasson@matis.is

Improved reefer container for fresh fish - Final report

The main goal of the project Improved refrigerated container for fresh fish was to improve refrigerated containers and procedures for transporting fresh seafood through redesign and testing. The aim is for design improvements to deliver refrigerated containers that reach a more even temperature throughout the transport process. Efforts should be made to achieve satisfactory improvements to refrigerated containers that are used today with simple and inexpensive measures. The consequences of improved temperature control in production and transport processes are increased quality, stability and safety, which at the same time increase the value of the product. Partners in the project were Matís, the University of Iceland, Eimskip Ísland and Samherji. This report describes the main results and products of the project. The results of the project showed that improvements are needed in maritime transport chains and it was shown that improvements can be achieved with simple and low-cost measures. Temperature control for sea transport can be improved by choosing the target temperature and cooling containers that are best suited for transporting fresh fish products. Mapping the heat distribution of refrigerated containers showed variability both in the transport process and in terms of location within the container, but design improvements aimed at forcing airflow within the container resulted in a more even heat distribution. The importance of procedures for loading refrigerated containers and their handling from manufacturer to buyer was also demonstrated.

The purpose of the project Improved reefer container for fresh fish is to use simple redesign and experimental testing to improve temperature control in reefer containers and work procedures of fresh fish products during transport. The design improvements are aimed at producing a reefer with more stable temperature through sea freight and transport. The aim is to get satisfactory improvements with simple and cost effective procedures. Improved temperature control in fish chill chains leads to increased product quality, stability and safety and thereby increased product value. The project was done in collaboration with Matís, University of Iceland, Eimskip Ísland and Samherji. This report describes the main results and products of the project. The results of the project showed that there is room for improvement in sea transport cold chains and with design improvements experiments it was demonstrated that they can be improved with simple and cost effective procedures. The results showed that the temperature control during sea freight may also be improved by selecting the reefer types most suitable for fresh fish transport and selecting different set point temperatures during summer and winter. The mappings of temperature distribution inside the reefers showed spatiotemporal variability and design improvements achieved a more uniform distribution by means of forced air circulation. Field tests demonstrated the importance of correct operating procedures during loading of reefers and their handling from processor to end location.

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Reports

Improved water usage in fish processing

Published:

01/12/2012

Authors:

Stefán Freyr Björnsson

Supported by:

AVS (S 12 004-12)

Improved water usage in fish processing

The aim of this preliminary project was to obtain basic information on water use in fish processing as well as organic substances lost in the effluent. With improved water use, it is possible to achieve operational efficiency and increase the value of production by utilizing by-products from the effluent from processing water. Water consumption in Iceland is much higher than in neighboring countries. Regulations are also being tightened with increasing restrictions on waste disposal and waste of water. The status of knowledge was examined with respect to the aforementioned factors to analyze the benefits of clean production technology in fish processing.

The project objective was to summarize state of the art knowledge concerning water usage and utilization of by-products from effluents in fish processing. Operation can be improved with better use of resources entailing increased value for raw material processed. Water usage in fish processing in Iceland is more than in neighboring countries, while environmental regulations are becoming stricter. Methods for cleaner fish processing were researched in terms of recommending improvements for fish processing factories.

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Reports

Thermal modeling of processing and transport of fresh fish / Hermun kæliferla - LOKASKÝRSLA

Published:

01/09/2011

Authors:

Björn Margeirsson, Sigurjón Arason, Kristín Valtýsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund, Technology Development Fund, University of Iceland Research Fund

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Thermal modeling of processing and transport of fresh fish / Hermun kæliferla - LOKASKÝRSLA

The main objective of the project Simulation of cooling processes - thermodynamic simulation of production and transport processes, which began in June 2008, was to present improvements in procedures and equipment related to the transport of marine products through process analysis, experiments and computerized thermal and hydrological models. The consequences of improved temperature control in production and transport processes are increased quality, stability and safety, which at the same time increase the value of the product. Partners in the project were Matís, the University of Iceland, Promens Tempra, Eimskip Ísland, Samherji, Brim (ÚA), Festi, Völusteinn and Eskja. This report describes the main results and products of the project. Examples of products are heat transfer models of fresh fish products in a foam box, which make it possible to predict fish temperatures based on environmental temperature history. Heat transfer models were used to redesign the Promens Tempra 3, 5 and 7 kg foam boxes with the minimum target fish temperature minimization under the target heat load. Experiments confirmed the superiority of the new boxes over traditional box types, both in terms of temperature control and product quality under heat load. The results of another experiment show that the shelf life of fresh fish fillets in corner boxes of whole pallets in the air transport chain can be about 1-1.5 days shorter than fillets in boxes in the middle of the pallet stack. Heat distribution in different cooling chains was mapped and special emphasis was placed on pre-cooling fillets for packing and heat distribution in different types of cooling containers with different loading patterns. 

The main aim of the research project Hermun kæliferla - Thermal modeling of processing and transport of fresh fish, which was launched in June 2008, was to improve technology and practices used for fish processing and transport by means of analysis of chill chains, experiments and computational modeling. Improved temperature control in fish chill chains leads to increased product quality, stability and safety and thereby increased product value. This report describes the main results and products of the project. Examples include heat transfer models of fresh fish fillets packaged in boxes, which can be used to predict product temperature evolution as a function of variable ambient temperature. Numerical heat transfer models were used to optimize the design of 3, 5 and 7 ‐ kg expanded polystyrene boxes manufactured by Promens Tempra with the aim of minimizing the maximum fish temperature in boxes under thermal load. Improved thermal protection of the new box design was confirmed in different experiments, both with regard to lesser product temperature variations and extended freshness period and storage life of products. The results from another storage study suggest that the storage life of fresh fish products in a corner box can be more than 1‐1.5 days shorter than in the center boxes of a full size pallet stack in a real air transport chain, depending on the level of ambient thermal load. Environmental and product temperatures were mapped in different chill chains with special emphasis laid on precooling during processing and temperature distribution in reefer containers of different types and loading patterns. 

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Reports

Review of evidence for the beneficial effect of fish consumption / Overview article on the positive effects of fish consumption

Published:

01/12/2010

Authors:

Björn Þorgilsson, Maria Leonor Nunes, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

EU, Matís

Review of evidence for the beneficial effect of fish consumption / Overview article on the positive effects of fish consumption

This report provides an overview of the main ingredients in fish that are thought to have a beneficial effect on human health. A number of health factors that have been linked to the positive effects of fish consumption were examined and evaluated. The greatest emphasis was placed on examining and evaluating the ingredients in fish that are present in relatively high concentrations and therefore likely to affect health, such as long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, selenium and vitamin D. Emphasis was placed on reviewing and evaluating information on the positive effects of fish ingredients on human health in recent meta-analyzes, review articles and expert opinions. The report was part of the European project QALIBRA or “Quality of Life - Integrated Benefit and Risk Analysis. Webbased tool for assessing food safety and health benefits ”or QALIBRA ‐Heilsuvogin in Icelandic.

The aim of this review is to facilitate policy makers, nutritionists and other interested parties of Western societies in judging claims regarding the health benefits of fish consumption. This review focuses on the main constituents in fish that have been associated with health benefits of fish consumption. A variety of human health endpoints that may be positively influenced by fish constituents are considered and evaluated. Most attention is given to the constituents in fish that are present at relatively high levels in fish and thus are likely to influence human health. These include omega ‐ 3 fatty acids (omega ‐ 3 FAs), selenium, and vitamin D. The scope of this review is broad rather than detailed concentrating on collation and evaluation of existing information about human benefits of fish consumption from meta ‐ analysis studies, reviews and expert opinions. This report was part of the work performed in the EU 6th Framework project “QALIBRA - Quality of life - integrated benefit and risk analysis. Web - based tool for assessing food safety and health benefits ”.

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Reports

Optimized Chilling Protocols for Fresh Fish

Published:

01/12/2010

Authors:

Björn Margeirsson, Hélène L. Lauzon, Lárus Þorvaldsson, Sveinn Víkingur Árnason, Sigurjón Arason, Kristín Líf Valtýsdóttir, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Center for Research, University of Iceland Research Fund and EU (contract FP6-016333-2)

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Optimized Chilling Protocols for Fresh Fish

Guidelines for cooling fresh fish describe the most effective cooling methods at all stages of the cooling chain, with an emphasis on white fish. It describes how to best cool and maintain temperatures in order to maximize product quality and safety and reduce costs and energy consumption. The report contains background information for instructions in the information source Kæligátt on Matís' website, which is presented in a user-friendly way in Icelandic www.kaeligatt.is and English www.chillfish.net. The guidelines are intended for fishermen, manufacturers, carriers and other members of the value chain. The guidelines are based on research that has been carried out within research projects such as Chill ‐ on, Simulation of cooling processes and Cooling improvement. The main chapters deal with refrigeration on board, during processing, during packing, transport and storage of fish.

The overall aim of the optimized chilling protocols is to describe the most effective chilling methods for any stage in the food supply chain with emphasis on whitefish. This comprises optimization of the whole chain for lowering and maintaining low temperature with the aim of maximizing quality and safety of the products and minimizing costs and energy use. This report is the background for the protocols and guidelines published with open access at Matís website in Icelandic and English in a user ‐ friendly way: www.chillfish.net. These are protocols to follow aimed at the use of fishermen, manufacturers, transporters and other stakeholders in the fisheries chain. The information is divided into subchapters of different links in the chain. How to chill fish on ‐ board, during processing, packaging, transport and storage are the main chapters.

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Reports

Overview on fish quality research - Impact of fish handling, processing, storage and logistics on fish quality deterioration

Published:

01/11/2010

Authors:

Hélène L. Lauzon, Björn Margeirsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, María Guðjónsdóttir, Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Emilia Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, Technology Development Fund and EU IP Chill-on (contract FP6-016333-2)

contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Overview on fish quality research - Impact of fish handling, processing, storage and logistics on fish quality deterioration

The short shelf life of fish is a limiting factor in the export of fresh fish products from Iceland. The initial quality of raw materials, methods of cooling, processing, packaging and conditions during storage and transport are discussed, as well as the effects of all these factors on the freshness and shelf life of fish products. Temperature control is very important to maintain the quality of the fish. Pre-processed fillets have been used to lower the pre-packing temperature. However, care must be taken that the pre-cooling technology does not endanger the microbial condition of the product and thus causes it to be damaged earlier after packaging. The synergistic effects of supercooling and aerated packaging (MAP) can significantly extend the freshness period and shelf life of fish products. Furthermore, packaging methods are examined, including new, more environmentally friendly packaging. Finally, the effect of transport routes of fresh fish products on their final quality to consumers in the market is discussed. This report provides an overview of the research of the Fisheries Research Institute and Matís ohf over the past three decades on the subject. Furthermore, it is discussed how these results can benefit the fishing industry.

The limited shelf life of fresh fish products is a large hurdle for the export of fresh products from Iceland. The influence of raw material quality, cooling methods, processing, packaging and storage conditions on freshness and shelf life extension is discussed. Temperature control is important to maintain fish quality. Pre-cooling of fillets in process has been used to lower the temperature prior to packaging. However, the cooling technique applied should not compromise the microbiological quality of the product and render it vulnerable to faster spoilage postpackaging. Synergism of combined superchilling and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) can lead to a considerable extension of the freshness period and shelf life of fish products. Further, alternative and environmentally-friendly packaging methods are considered. Finally, the impact of transportation mode of fresh fish products on their resulting quality is examined. This report provides an overview of the findings on fish research carried out at Matís (Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories) over the last three decades and further discusses their practicality for the fish processing industry.

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Reports

Attitudes and fish consumption of young people aged 16 to 20: Intervention in Akureyri Young consumer attitudes and fish consumption: Improved image of seafood

Published:

01/02/2009

Authors:

Gunnþórunn Einarsdóttir, Ása Vala Þórisdóttir, Fanney Þórsdóttir, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Emilía Martinsdóttir, Friðrik H. Jónsson, Inga Þórsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund: R020-05

contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Attitudes and fish consumption of young people aged 16 to 20: Intervention in Akureyri Young consumer attitudes and fish consumption: Improved image of seafood

1. The aim of the project "Attitudes and fish consumption of young people: Improving the image of seafood" was, among other things, to obtain information on the attitudes and fish consumption of young people. Here is a summary of the results of a participatory study conducted on young people aged 16-20 years. It was examined whether education about fish and more access to it would result in increased fish consumption and more positive attitudes towards fish.

Method and participants: The study was conducted on students from Menntaskólinn á Akureyri and Verkmenntaskólinn á Akureyri who lived on the student parks Lund. The intervention took place in such a way that the number of fish meals in the canteen was increased by half and educational lectures were held for the students where more than 80 students attended (27%) and a presentation was posted on the website. An opinion and consumption survey was prepared in the form of a questionnaire and presented to the students. The same survey was conducted in the fall of 2006 (n = 225, 75%) before the intervention and in the spring of 2007 (n = 220, 73%) after the intervention. The questionnaire was divided into seven sections: 1. Attitudes towards health and food categories; 2. Fish consumption and consumption of various foods; 3. Taste for fish dishes; 4. Factors affecting fish consumption; 5. Prerequisites for fish consumption; 6. External influencers, 7. Knowledge regarding fish.

Results: The intervention resulted in better knowledge of the fish and fish oil consumption increased by almost half and more in girls than boys. Thirty-two percent of students consumed fish oil daily after the intervention but only 22% before the intervention. Furthermore, 38% consumed fish oil 4-7 times a week after the intervention but only 28% before the intervention. On average, the young people ate fish as a main course 1.8 times a week before the intervention and 1.9 times a week after the intervention, but the difference was not significant. The students' fish consumption is therefore not far from the Public Health Institute's recommendations. In terms of incentives for fish consumption, parents were the strongest influencers, but their influence diminished only after intervention. Students' attitudes towards fish became more negative after the intervention, but despite this, their fish consumption did not decrease. Those who did not have fish before the intervention liked it better after the intervention. Targeted education about both healthy fish and an increased supply of diverse fish dishes are necessary to promote increased fish consumption by young people.

The aim of the project “Young consumer attitudes and fish consumption: Improved image of seafood” was to obtain information on the attitudes of young people towards fish and fish consumption. Results are shown from an interventive research which was carried out on young people of the age group 16-20. It was examined if education about fish and its accessibility would result in increased fish consumption and more positive attitudes towards fish. Method and participants: Students from the college and vocational school at Akureyri participated in the study. The intervention was done by doubling the number of fish meals at the school's canteens and informative lectures were given to over 80 students (27%) and information was given on the school web. The students answered a questionnaire on attitudes and consumption of fish. The same study was done twice; in the autumn 2006 (n = 225, 75%) before the intervention and in spring 2007 (n = 220, 73%) after the intervention The questionnaire was divided into 7 parts: 1. Attitudes towards health and food types; 2. Consumption of fish and other foods; Liking of various fish dishes; 4. Factors affecting fish consumption; 5. Prerequisite of fish consumption; 6. External effects; 7. Knowledge about fish. Results: The intervention resulted in better knowledge about fish and the fish liver oil consumption almost doubled, more among girls than boys. Thirty-two percent of the students consumed fish oil daily after the intervention but only 22% before. Further, 38% consumed fish oil 4-7 times a week after the intervention but only 28% before. On average, the young people consumed fish as a main dish 1.8 times a week before the intervention but 1.9 after, the difference was not significant. The fish consumption of the students is therefore not far from the recommendation of the Public Health Institute of Iceland. The parents had the most influence on encouraging increased fish consumption, but their effect decreased a little after the intervention. The attitudes of the students towards fish became more negative after the intervention but did not however decrease their fish consumption. Those who did not like fish before the intervention liked it better after the intervention. Systematic education on the wholesomeness of fish and increased variety of fish dishes are essential to encourage increased fish consumption among young people.

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Reports

QALIBRA - Cluster Meeting Report and Minutes from the 2nd Cluster meeting of the QALIBRA and BENERIS projects

Published:

01/02/2008

Authors:

Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir, Björn Þorgilsson

Supported by:

European Commission, Matís, CSL, RIVM, WU, Upatras, Altagra, Ipimar

QALIBRA - Cluster Meeting Report and Minutes from the 2nd Cluster meeting of the QALIBRA and BENERIS projects

This project report describes a joint meeting of two European projects called QALIBRA and BENERIS. The meeting was held in Helsinki, Finland from 6 to 9 November 2007. Both projects fall under Priority 5, Food Quality & Safety in the 6th EU Research Program and share some work components. The purpose of the meeting was:

1) Audit of two EU regulators on the work of the projects for the first 18 months

2) Ensure the flow of information between projects and discuss ongoing collaboration

3) Comments and proposals of the reference advisory committee of the projects on the work and the continuation

QALIBRA, or “Quality of Life - Integarted Benefit and Risk Analysis. Web-based tool for assessing food safety and health benefits, ”abbreviated QALIBRA (Heilsuvogin in Icelandic), is a three-and-a-half-year project led by Matís. The project manager is Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir, department manager at Matís. The aim of the QALIBRA project is to develop quantitative methods to assess both the positive and negative effects of food ingredients on human health. The goal is to present these methods in a computer program that will be open and accessible to all stakeholders on the web. The aim of the BENERIS project is to create a methodology for dealing with complex benefit-risk situations, and then use them to assess the benefits / risks that certain types of food can bring. The first type of food that will be used in the development of this methodology is seafood. This report describes the discussions and the main conclusions of the meeting.

This report is a summary of the 2nd Cluster meeting of the QALIBRA and the BENERIS projects in Helsinki, Finland, November 6-9th, 2007. Both projects are funded by the EC´s 6th framework program, and have the same contract starting dates and a common workpackage (WP6) for cluster activities. Both projects began on April 1st 2006 and will run until October 2009, or for 42 months. This report contains results of the discussions that took place and the actions defined, while the overheads presented during the meeting are compiled in an Annex to the report. The overall objective of QALIBRA is to develop a suite of quantitative methods for assessing and integrating beneficial and adverse effects of foods and making them available to all stakeholders as web-based software for assessing and communicating net health impacts. The overall objective of BENERIS is to create a framework for handling complicated benefit-risk situations and apply it for analysis of the benefits and risks of certain foods. The first food commodity to be used in the development of the methodology is seafood.

The objective of the Cluster meeting was:

1) Evaluation (by two independent experts appointed by the EC) of activities from the beginning of the projects until the meeting

2) Sharing of information on scientific progress and plans between Qalibra and Beneris, as well as planning of further cluster activities

3) Obtain feedback and advice from the Qalibra / Beneris Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP)

This report contains results of the discussions that took place and the actions defined.

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