Use of bioactive substances in halibut farming
The main goal of the project was to promote the increased performance of halibut in fire and use environmentally friendly methods. Bioactive substances were used that were easy to obtain, contributed to the increased value of seafood and also had some of the desired activity, ie. bactericidal / inhibitory, prebiotic or immunostimulatory activity. Experiments were made with various materials in the project, ie. chitosan derivatives as well as peptides derived from blue whiting, cod and saithe. The effect of treatment with the substances was assessed in terms of the growth and performance of larvae and forage animals as well as in terms of the composition of the bacterial flora and the stimulation of a non-specific immune response in larvae. The main results indicate that the most suitable method for introducing substances into larvae is to use feed animals (Artemia) and a method was developed in the project to treat them. The bioactive substances did not appear to have a bactericidal effect in the rearing environment of the feed animals, but did contribute to a change in the composition of the bacterial flora. Bioactive substances seemed to be used primarily as supplements as feed animals were plump and playful. The performance and quality of larvae in the breeding units of Fiskey hf. is very different and there is no obvious relationship between the performance of the peritoneal stage and the performance and quality of the larvae at the end of the initial feeding. The composition of bacterial flora was also found to be very different in peritoneal larvae and larval feeding larvae. Three separate experiments were carried out in the Fiskey juvenile farm where the larvae in the initial feeding were treated with bioactive substances. The main results showed that it is important to treat with the right concentration of substances and for a reasonably long time as too much concentration can have a negative effect on the growth and metamorphosis of larvae. Treatment with blue whiting peptides was thought to give promising results and have a beneficial effect on larval metastasis. Bioactive substances did not appear to have a decisive effect on the number of bacterial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of larvae, but treatment with blue whiting and cod peptides could potentially alter the composition of the flora. Studies on the non-specific immune response of halibut larvae revealed the presence of C3 and Lysozyme from the end of the peritoneal stage, but IgM production does not begin until about 28 days after the start of feeding. Higher levels of IgM were detected during the first weeks in larvae treated with saithe peptides and this may indicate an immunostimulatory effect. The results of the project as a whole indicate that the bioactive substances studied did not have a decisive effect on the bacterial flora of the farm, but the treatment of larvae in starter feeding with the right concentration of bioactive substances could have a good effect on larval performance and stimulate larval immune response. of the farm when they have not yet developed a specialized immune response.
The aim of this project was to promote increased survival of halibut larvae during first feeding by using bioactive products. The bioactive products were selected by the criterion that they were easily accessible and induced any of the desired effects ie inhibiting bacterial growth, prebiotic effects or immunostimulants. The products studied are chitosan and peptide hydrolysates from blue whiting, cod and saithe. The effects of treatment were evaluated with respect to growth and survival of larvae and the live feed (Artemia) as well as effects on bacterial numbers or the community structure of the intestinal microbiota of larvae and stimulation of the innate immune system of the larvae. The results indicate that treating live feed (Artemia) is a suitable method to carry the bioactive products to the larval intestines during first feeding and a new technique has been standardized for treatment of the live feed with the products. The bioactive products did not affect the total bacterial count in the Artemia but the composition of the bacterial community may be changed as a result of the treatment. The Artemia seems to use the bioactive products as a food supplement and was well suited to be used as live feed. A significant variation in overall success of larvae was observed without any obvious correlation between survival of larvae at the end of the yolk sac stage and at the end of first feeding. A different bacterial pattern was observed in the intestine at the yolk sac stage compared to first feeding larvae. Three separate experiments were carried out in the halibut production units at Fiskey Ltd. where larvae were treated with various bioactive products. The results emphasize the importance of treating larvae with the appropriate concentrations of the products, as elevated concentrations can negatively affect growth and metamorphosis of the larvae. Treatment with peptides from blue whiting resulted in relatively good survival of larvae with similar success of metamorphosis compared to control units. The bioactive products did not affect bacterial growth but there were indications that peptides from blue whiting and cod may affect the composition of the intestinal community of bacteria in the larvae. Results from studies of the immunological parameters indicate the presence of C3 and Lysozyme already from the end of the yolk sac stage and the initialization of IgM production after approximately 28 days in feeding. Production of IgM was stimulated in larvae treated with peptides from saithe, indicating immunostimulating effects of this product. The overall results indicate that the bioactive products studied did not affect the bacterial flora during the first production stages of halibut larvae. However, if used in the appropriate quantities and at the right time, the products may promote survival and growth and stimulate the innate immunity of larvae.