Skýrslur

NordMar Plastic RISK: Socioeconomic risks of plastic to the bioeconomy – Icelandic case study

Útgefið:

30/01/2020

Höfundar:

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Gunnar Þórðarson, Bryndís Björnsdóttir

Styrkt af:

Nordic Council of Ministers

Tengiliður

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsóttir

Group Leader

hronn@matis.is

NordMar Plastic RISK: Socioeconomic risks of plastic to the bioeconomy – Icelandic case study

The risks related to plastic on the bioeconomy are not only biological, toxicological and chemical, but also societal and economical. Influence of tainted opinion on the Nordic environment or Nordic production could influence tourism, marketing and general wellbeing. The aim of the NordMar PlasticRISK project is to evaluate the diverse impact and main socioeconomic risks related to marine plastic pollution on the bioeconomy of the Nordic countries using Iceland as a case study. Two of the main industries in Iceland, the fishing industry and tourism, are heavily dependent on the bioeconomy as well as clean and pristine environment. Economical risks, followed by tainting the environment with visual plastic debris and macroplastic as well as unclear status of microplastic, is estimated to be high due to increased environmental awareness of consumers and tourists, where the main focus of tourist arriving to Iceland is to experience pristine environment. Several actions are suggested such as to evaluate and improve the Icelandic system for recycling of used fishing gear, evaluate further marketing options and value of advertising low and responsible plastic use in these two main industries and increase education on environmental issues in the School of navigation.

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Skýrslur

NordMar Plastic RISK: Socioeconomic risks of plastic to the bioeconomy – Icelandic case study. Executive summary.

Útgefið:

30/01/2020

Höfundar:

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Gunnar Þórðarson, Bryndís Björnsdóttir

Styrkt af:

Nordic Council of Ministers

Tengiliður

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsóttir

Group Leader

hronn@matis.is

NordMar Plastic RISK: Socioeconomic risks of plastic to the bioeconomy – Icelandic case study. Executive summary.

The risks related to plastic on the bioeconomy are not only biological, toxicological and chemical, but also societal and economical. Influence of tainted opinion on the Nordic environment or Nordic production could influence tourism, marketing and general wellbeing. The aim of the NordMar PlasticRISK project is to evaluate the diverse impact and main socioeconomic risks related to marine plastic pollution on the bioeconomy of the Nordic countries using Iceland as a case study. Two of the main industries in Iceland, the fishing industry and tourism, are heavily dependent on the bioeconomy as well as clean and pristine environment. Economical risks, followed by tainting the environment with visual plastic debris and macroplastic as well as unclear status of microplastic, is estimated to be high due to increased environmental awareness of consumers and tourists, where the main focus of tourist arriving to Iceland is to experience pristine environment. Several actions are suggested such as to evaluate and improve the Icelandic system for recycling of used fishing gear, evaluate further marketing options and value of advertising low and responsible plastic use in these two main industries and increase education on environmental issues in the School of navigation. 

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Skýrslur

Coastal communities and coastal fisheries in the N-Atlantic (Kystsamfund): A summary report on conference proceedings

Útgefið:

01/11/2014

Höfundar:

Jónas R. Viðarsson, Audun Iversen, Edgar Henriksen, Bengt Larson, Carl-Axel Ottosson, Henrik S. Lund, Durita Djurhuus, Auðunn Konráðsson, Tønnes Berthelsen, Heather Manuel, David Decker, Sveinn Agnarsson, Halldór Ármannsson, Staffan Waldo, Johan Blomquist, Max Nielsen, Hrafn Sigvaldason, Bjarni Sigurðsson

Styrkt af:

The Working Group for Fisheries Co-operation (AG-Fisk) of the Nordic Council of Ministers _ AG-fisk project 108-2014

Tengiliður

Jónas Rúnar Viðarsson

Sviðsstjóri verðmætasköpunar

jonas@matis.is

Coastal communities and coastal fisheries in the N-Atlantic (Kystsamfund): A summary report on conference proceedings

A conference titled “Coastal fisheries and coastal communities in the N-Atlantic” was held on September 27th 2014 in connection with the Icelandic Fisheries Exhibition www.icefish.is, which took place in Kópavogur, Iceland on September 25-27. The motivation for the conference is that coastal fisheries and coastal communities in the N-Atlantic are currently faced with numerous operational and social challenges, but at the same time new opportunities have arisen. Some of these challenges and opportunities are specific for each country and some are common for the area as a whole. The aim of the conferences was to identify these challenges and opportunities, and to discuss how they can be addressed on national and/or cooperative Nordic level. The conference was attended by fifty stakeholders from seven N-Atlantic countries. At the conference, representatives from Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Greenland and Newfoundland had presentations on the coastal fishing sector and the coastal communities in their countries. They also deliberated on the future prospects of the traditional fishing villages, taking into consideration current trends and upcoming opportunities. These country profiles were followed by a presentation on a Nordic research project that is set to examine wages in the Nordic coastal sectors and to compare them with other professions. The last presentation of the conference was aimed at comparing operational environment in the coastal sector in Iceland and Norway, as Icelandic fishermen working in Norway introduced their experience in running their business in Norway as opposed to Iceland. The planned agenda included a presentation from the chairman of the Icelandic Regional Development Institute, which had intended to deliberate on the institute’s strategy to support regional development. But he unfortunately had to cancel with only few hours advance, which made it impossible to find a replacement. Following is a short summary of each presentation, but pdf versions and video recordings along with numerous other supporting material is available at the project’s web-page www.coastalfisheries.net.

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Life Cycle Assessment on fresh Icelandic cod loins / Vistferilsgreining á ferskum þorskhnökkum

Útgefið:

01/09/2014

Höfundar:

Birgir Örn Smárason, Jónas R. Viðarsson, Gunnar Þórðarson, Lilja Magnúsdóttir

Styrkt af:

AVS (R13 042‐13)

Tengiliður

Birgir Örn Smárason

Verkefnastjóri

birgir@matis.is

Life Cycle Assessment on fresh Icelandic cod loins /   Vistferilsgreining á ferskum þorskhnökkum

With growing human population and increased fish consumption, the world’s fisheries are not only facing the challenge of harvesting fish stocksin a sustainable manner, but also to limit the environmental impacts along the entire value chain. The fishing industry, like all other industries, contributes to global warming and other environmental impacts with consequent marine ecosystem deterioration. Environmentally responsible producers, distributors, retailers and consumers recognize this and are actively engaged in mapping the environmental impacts of their products and constantly looking for ways to limit the effects. In this project a group of Icelandic researchers and suppliers of fresh Icelandic cod loins carried out Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) within selected value chains. The results were compared with similar research on competing products and potentials for improvements identified. The project included LCA of fresh cod loins sold in the UK and Switzerland from three bottom trawlers and four long‐ liners. The results show that fishing gear has considerable impact on carbon footprint values with numbers ranging from 0.3 to 1.1 kg CO2eq/kg product. The catching phase impacts is however dominated by the transport phase, where transport by air contributes to over 60% of the total CO2 emissions within the chain. Interestingly, transport by sea to the UK emits even less CO2 than the domestic transport.   Minimizing the carbon footprint, and environmental impacts in general, associated with the provision of seafood can make a potentially important contribution to climate change control. Favouring low impact fishing gear and transportation can lead to reduction in CO2 emissions, but that is not always practical or even applicable due to the limited availability of sea freight alternatives, time constrains, quality issues and other factors. When comparing the results with other similar results for competing products it is evident that fresh Icelandic cod loins have moderate CO2 emissions.

Samfara mikilli fólksfjölgun og aukinni fiskneyslu stendur sjávarútvegur á heimsvísu nú frami fyrir því mikilvæga verkefni að nýta fiskstofna á sjálfbæran hátt á sama tíma og þau þurfa að lágmarka öll umhverfisáhrif sem hljótast af veiðum, vinnslu, flutningunum og öðrum hlekkjum í virðiskeðjunni. Sjávarútvegur, líkt og allur annar iðnaður, stuðlar að hlýnun jarðar og hefur jafnframt í för með sér ýmiss önnur umhverfisáhrif sem hafa skaðleg áhrif á lífríki sjávar. Fyrirtækisem vilja sýna félagslega‐ og umhverfislega ábyrgð ísínum rekstri gera sér fulla grein fyrir þessu og sækjast því eftir að fylgjast betur með umhverfisáhrifum sinnar framleiðslu og leita leiða til að draga úr þeim. Með þetta í huga tók hópur íslenskra rannsóknaraðila, sjávarútvegsfyrirtækja og sölu‐  og dreifingaraðila saman höndum, til að framkvæma vistferilsgreiningu (LCA) í völdum virðiskeðjum ferskra þorskhnakka. Niðurstöðurnar voru svo bornar saman við niðurstöður sambærilegra rannsókna sem gerðar hafa verið á samkeppnisvörum, jafnframt því sem leiðir til að draga úr umhverfisáhrifum innan áðurnefndra virðiskeðja voru kannaðar. Rannsóknin náði til ferskra íslenskra þorskhnakka sem seldir eru í Bretlandi og Sviss. Hnakkarnir voru unnir úr afla þriggja togara og fjögurra línubáta. Niðurstöðurnar sýna að tegund veiðarfæris hefur mikil áhrif á sótspor / kolefnisspor afurðanna þar sem línubátarnir komu heilt yfir töluvert betur út en togararnir. Sótspor einstakra skipa í rannsókninni var á bilinu 0.3 til 1.1 kg CO2eq/kg afurð, sem verður að teljast nokkuð lágt í samanburði við fyrri rannsóknir. Þegar kemur að því að skoða alla virðiskeðjuna er það hins vegar flutningshlutinn eða flutningsmátinn sem skiptir langsamlega mestu máli þ.s. sá hluti ber ábyrgð á yfir 60% sótsporsins þegar varan er flutt út með flugi. Sé hún hins vegar flutt út með skipi verður sótspor flutningshlutans sáralítið og fer þá innanlandsflutningur að skipta meira máli en flutningurinn yfir hafið. Lágmörkun umhverfisáhrifa sem hljótast af veiðum, vinnslu og dreifingu sjávarafurða getur haft mikilvægt innlegg í baráttunni gegn hlýnun jarðar. Með því að velja veiðiaðferðir og flutningsmáta með tilliti til sótspors er unnt að draga umtalsvert úr kolefnisútblæstri, en það þarf þó einnig að hafa í huga að það er ekki ávalt mögulegt eða raunhæft að velja eingöngu þá kosti sem hafa lægst sótspor. Niðurstöður þessara rannsóknar og samanburður við niðurstöður sambærilegra rannsókna sýnir að ferskir íslenskir þorskhnakkar sem komnir eru á markað í Bretlandi og Sviss hafa hóflegt sótspor og eru fyllilega samkeppnisfærir við aðrar fiskafurðir eða dýraprótein.

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