Peer-reviewed articles

Torula yeast in the diet of Atlantic salmon Salmo salarand the impact on growth performance and gut microbiome


Birgir Örn Smárason

Research Group Leader

Authors: Alexandra Leeper, Ricardo Ekmay, Stephen Knobloch, Sigurlaug Skírnisdóttir, Madhushri Varunjikar, Marianne Dubois, Birgir Örn Smárason, Jón Árnason, Wolfgang Koppe, David Benhaïm

Version: Scientific Reports

Publication year: 2022


Atlantic salmon aquaculture is expanding, and with it, the need to find suitable replacements for conventional protein sources used in formulated feeds. Torula yeast (Cyberlindnera jadinii), has been identified as a promising alternative protein for feed and can be sustainably cultivated on lignocellulosic biomasses. The present study investigated the impact of torula yeast on the growth performance and gut microbiome of freshwater Atlantic salmon. A marine protein base diet and a mixed marine and plant protein base diet were tested, where conventional proteins were replaced with increasing inclusion levels of torula yeast, (0%, 10%, 20%). This study demonstrated that 20% torula yeast can replace fish meal without alteration to growth performance while leading to potential benefits for the gut microbiome by increasing the presence of bacteria positively associated with the host. However, when torula yeast replaced plant meal in a mixed protein diet, results suggested that 10% inclusion of yeast produced the best growth performance results but at the 20% inclusion level of yeast, potentially negative changes were observed in the gut microbial community, such as a decrease in lactic acid bacteria. This study supports the continued investigation of torula yeast for Atlantic salmon as a partial replacement for conventional proteins.