Genetics kit for char




Sigurlaug Skírnisdóttir, Alexandra M. Klonowski, Sigurbjörg Hauksdóttir, Kristinn Ólafsson, Helgi Thorarensen, Einar Svavarsson, Sigríður Hjörleifsdóttir

Supported by:

Tækniþróunarsjóður Rannsóknamiðstöð Íslands


Sigurlaug Skírnisdóttir

Project Manager

Genetics kit for char

The goal of the project was to create a powerful genetic kit for char with 15-20 genetic markers. Many genetic markers have been published for char and other salmonids, but the disadvantage is that no suitable reproduction gene set is known, which is a prerequisite for the efficient use of technology. It is important that the genetic markers show variability within the strain, are of a certain size but of different sizes, work well in a amplification reaction solution and are well readable after the sample has been run on a sequencer. The risk in the project was whether it would be possible to find a suitable genetic marker that could be combined into 2-3 reaction mixtures. 70 pairs of indicators were tested for 56 published genetic markers. The result of the project was that it was possible to combine 17 genetic markers into 3 reaction mixtures. A total of 140 fish were identified from the Hólar fish stock with these 17 genetic boundaries, but in addition, 12 wild fish were identified with them. The results showed that the genetic markers were used to differentiate between different groups of char. The processing of genetic analyzes clearly confirmed that Hólableikjan is mainly made up of two species. Some genetically modified wild charr yielded new isotopes not seen in farmed fish. Therefore, there are now genetic marketing kits that can be used in breeding work, in stock research on wild char and in traceability research. This will strengthen breeding work and is a powerful tool for research on char in the future.

The goal of the project was to develop genotyping protocols for Arctic charr containing multiplexes of 15-20 microsatellite markers. Many microsatellite markers have been published for salmonoid fishes, but no multiplexes are known which are of practical use when analyzing many samples at a time and therefore, to make the research profitable. The microsatellite markers must show variability among the fishes, they must be of certain sizes and of variable sizes, they must be amplifiable in multiplex PCR reactions and they must be easily readable from the machine. The risk of the project was to find published microsatellite markers which would fulfill these criteria and fit into 2-3 multiplex PCR reactions. Seventy primer pairs were tested for 56 published microsatellite markers. The results of the project were that 17 microsatellite markers which fit into 3 multiplex PCR reactions. A total of 140 fish from the brood stock of Arctic charr from the University at Holar was analyzed in the study as well as 12 samples from wild fish of different lakes and rivers. The results indicate that these markers can be used to analyze different stocks of Arctic charr. Furthermore, analyzes of the brood stock confirms that it mainly consists of two different stocks. New alleles were observed in the wild fish compared to the brood stock fish. A genotyping protocol to analyze Arctic charr for use in breeding industry, in wild fish research and in tractability analyzes, is now available. This will help in building up breeding programs and will be a helpful tool of the genetic research of Arctic charr.

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