Fréttir

Tryggja veirufrítt íslenskt kartöfluútsæði

Tengiliður

Sæmundur Sveinsson

Fagstjóri

saemundurs@matis.is

Í desember 2021 gerðu Matís og Bændasamtök Íslands með sér samkomulag um vefjaræktun á stofnútsæði kartaflna og er vinna við verkefnið hafin hjá Matís. Í síðasta tölublaði Bændablaðsins birtist umfjöllun um verkefnið þar sem fjallað er um samkomulagið og helstu verkþætti.

Tilgangurinn með vefjaræktun á kartöflum er að tryggja að íslenskir bændur eigi áfram aðgengi að heilbrigðu útsæði af íslensku yrkjunum fjórum: Premier, Gullauga, Rauðum íslenskum og Helgu. Tilgangur stofnræktunar er að stuðla að framleiðslu á stofnútsæði sem er laust við veirusjúkdóma. Veirur komast auðveldlega milli móðurkartafla og afkvæma og því er vefjaræktun eina leiðin til að viðhalda veirufríu útsæði. Veirur eru mjög skaðlegar fyrir bændur en veirusmitað útsæði gefur allt að þriðjungi minni uppskeru. Sigurgeir Ólafsson, fyrrum sérfræðingur á RALA, kom upp veirufríum stofnum af íslensku afbrigðunum. Markmið þessa verkefnis er viðhalda þessum stofnum. Í samstarfsverkefni Bændasamtakanna og Matís kemur Matís til með að sjá um framkvæmd á verkþáttum sem snúa að vefjaræktuninni sjálfri.

Í Bændablaðinu er haft eftir Axel Snæland, formanni deildar garðyrkjubænda innan Bændasamtaka Íslands:

„Deild garðyrkjubænda innan Bændasamtakanna stóð fyrir gerð samningsins við Matís, sem felur í sér vefjaræktunarhluta stofnræktunar útsæðiskartaflna. Verkefni Matís felur í sér að skila af sér vefjaræktuðum útsæðiskartöflum, Premier, Gullauga, Helgu og Rauðum íslenskum, sem eru lausar við veirur og sjúkdóma, eins og til dæmis kláða og hringrot. Auk þess sem kartöflurnar eru valdar með tilliti til útlits. […] Því miður er það svo að víða um heim eru sjúkdómar í kartöflum landlægir og margir þeirra sjúkdóma geta borist hingað til lands og valdið miklum skaða ef við gætum þess ekki að hafa vaðið fyrir neðan okkur.“

Verkefninu miðar vel og um þessar mundir eru kartöfluplöntur, ræktaðar af spírum, í glerflöskum við sérstakar stýrðar aðstæður í vefjaræktunarklefa í húsakynnum Matís eins og sjá má á meðfylgjandi myndum.

Eftir frekari rannsóknavinnu verður svo hægt að skila litlum plöntum í ræktunarhlaupi í áframræktun til stofnkartöfluræktenda til gróðurhúsaræktunar í mold næsta vor ef allt gengur eftir.

Greinina má lesa í heild sinni í Bændablaðinu hér: Stofnræktun á útsæðiskartöflum

Fréttir

Starf sérfræðings á sviði efnamælinga (Neskaupstað)

Hjá Matís er laust til umsóknar starf sérfræðings. Við leitum að sjálfstæðum og metnaðarfullum einstaklingi til að starfa í öflugu teymi.

Helstu verkefni og ábyrgð:

  • Efnamælingar og viðhald tækja
  • Viðhald mæliaðferða og verkefna í faggiltu umhverfi fyrir iðnað og rannsóknaverkefni
  • Upplýsingamiðlun og samskipti við viðskiptavini
  • Innkaup og samskipti við birgja

Menntunar- og hæfniskröfur

  • BSc gráða í efnafræði, efnaverkfræði, lífefnafræði eða sambærilegu námi
  • Góð samstarfshæfni og sveigjanleiki í samskiptum
  • Æskilegt er að viðkomandi hafi unnið við efnamælingar og hafi reynslu af viðhaldi tækja.
  • Frumkvæði, áreiðanleiki og metnaður

Starfshlutfall er 100% og er starfið staðsett í Neskaupstað

Með vísan í jafnréttisstefnu Matís eru öll kyn hvött til að sækja um. Umsóknum þarf að fylgja ítarleg starfsferilskrá og kynningarbréf þar sem gerð er grein fyrir hæfni umsækjanda í viðkomandi starf. Einnig þarf að fylgja nafn og símanúmer eða tölvupóstfang hjá tveimur meðmælendum sem geta staðfest hæfni umsækjanda.

Umsóknarfrestur er til 07.07.22

Nánari upplýsingar um starfið veitir Natasa Desnica, natasa@matis.is

Fréttir

Grunnskóli Bolungarvíkur bar sigur úr býtum í landskeppni Grænna Frumkvöðla Framtíðar 2022

Tengiliður

Justine Vanhalst

Verkefnastjóri

justine@matis.is

Í lok maí fór fram Landskeppni MAKEathons, nýsköpunarkeppni Grænna Frumkvöðla Framtíðar. Þar kepptu skólarnir þrír, Nesskóli, Grunnskóli Bolungarvíkur og Árskóli, til úrslita.

Hver skóli sendi inn myndband þar sem þeir útskýrðu sínar lausnir á umhverfisáskorunum í  sinni heimabyggð. Keppnin var hnífjöfn en á endanum var það Grunnskóli Bolungarvíkur sem bar sigur úr býtum. Þeim innan handar voru Hildur Ágústsdóttir kennari og Gunnar Ólafsson frá Djúpinu frumkvöðlasetri.

Grunnskóli Bolungarvíkur glímdi við áskorunina:

„Hvernig er hægt að nýta úrgang frá fiskeldi betur “

og lausnin sem vann bar yfirskriftina: „Að nýta úrgang frá fiskeldi á sjálfbæran hátt“

Hér er fyrir neðan má lesa  endurgjöfina sem sigurliðið fékk frá dómnefndinni:

“Þið eruð hugvitssöm og lausnamiðuð. Þið komuð auga á umhverfisvandamál sem skapast vegna fiskeldis í sjó og leituðuð lausna. Það var frábært að fá að sjá skítinn sem safnast hefur fyrir, en það sjónarhorn fær almenningur yfirleitt ekki. Ykkar verkefni gengur út á að breyta úrgangi og botnfalli í auðlind sem nýtist, og gæti því komið bæði náttúru og sjávarútvegsfyrirtækjum að gagni. Við hvetjum ykkur til að vinna lausnina áfram og hafa í huga mikilvægi líffræðilegs fjölbreytileika í vistkerfum í sjónum, en eldi í sjó getur skaðað hann sé ekki að gætt.“

Í dómnefnd sátu:

  • Lenya Rún Taha Karim varaþingmaður Pírata og lögfræðinemi
  • Margrét Hugadóttir vefstjóri og verkefnastjóri hjá Landvernd
  • Þóra Valsdóttir verkefnastjóri hjá Matís

Fyrir frekari upplýsingar er bent á að hafa samband við verkefnastjóra Grænna frumkvöðla framtíðar: Justine@matis.is. Skólar sem vilja taka þátt eru sérstaklega hvattir til að hafa samband (fréttamenn geta  haft samband í síma: 762 0266).

Hér er hægt að fylgjast með gangi verkefnisins:

Ritrýndar greinar

Interactive governance of whale ecosystem services: governability assessment of three case studies in the Arctic

The social-ecological change in the Arctic is accelerated by the multifaceted effects of climate change and globalization. Among other things, this means changing human-ecosystem dynamics through altered availability, co-production, and governance of ecosystem services (ES). A group of species illustrative of this change are whales, migratory species that have played an important part in the culture and subsistence of Arctic communities for millennia. This study explores the changing human-nature interactions and whale ES governance by combining ES and interactive governance theories. A multi-method approach is applied to assess qualitatively the qualitative governability of whale ES in three Arctic coastal locations: Húsavík in Iceland, Andenes in Norway, and Disko Bay in Greenland. Based on a literature review, stakeholder mapping, observations, and analysis of 54 semi-structured stakeholder interviews, the study finds that whale ES governance involves multiple actors with differing preferences and values and that much of it happens outside of formal institutions, necessitating inclusive approaches to improve it. The study reveals some whale ES governance deficiencies and potentials, such as a mismatch between governance scales and a need for more formal governance practices based on scientific research and stakeholder inputs. Governance frameworks were present for provisioning whale ES related to whaling, but they were lacking for non-consumptive whale ES, such as whale watching. Addressing these issues can help to direct marine resource management toward sustainability by making it more inclusive, adaptive, and reflective of stakeholder needs and values. This goal could be advanced by applying the governance principles that view humans as an integral part of social-ecological systems, e.g., ecosystem stewardship and ecosystem-based management.

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Socio-cultural valuation of whale ecosystem services in Skjálfandi Bay, Iceland

The study examines the socio-cultural values of multiple ecosystem services (ES) sourced from whales in Skjálfandi Bay, North Iceland, with many beneficiaries living in and visiting the town of Húsavík. The study begins to address the research gap in non-monetary valuation of marine ecosystem services. Based on a multi-method approach, it elicits stakeholders’ perceptions of the contribution of whale ES to human wellbeing using stakeholder mapping, semi-structured interviews, observations, and socio-cultural preference surveys. The key whale ES identified by the local stakeholders were cultural, most frequently mentioned being recreation and education. The most commonly mentioned ES values were related to economic benefits from the whale watching industry. The preference survey reveals that regulating and maintenance ES were valued most highly with a mean score of 4.0 out of 5.0, cultural ES were second with a mean score of 3.5, and provisioning ES in the form of food and raw materials were valued the least with a mean of 0.75. Interview data also reveals some marine ES management challenges originating from intensified tourism, industrial development, and climate change. The results of the study have the potential to inform marine resource management in Iceland by including socio-cultural values associated with whale resources.

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Whale Ecosystem Services and Co-production Processes Underpinning Human Wellbeing in the Arctic: Case Studies from Greenland, Iceland and Norway

The concept of ecosystem services (ES) has only just begun to be applied in the Arctic, and to an even lesser extent to marine mammals, such as whales. This chapter develops an ES cascade model and related ES co-production processes as they apply to whale resources in the Arctic. The result is a new conceptual model demonstrating the interconnectedness of social-ecological processes involving natural and human capital that enhance human wellbeing through the co-creation of whale ES. An ES cascade model is presented for whale ES, which connects the five linked stages of such ES production: the biophysical structure, functions, ecosystem services, the benefits to human wellbeing, and associated values. They are further expanded to include the co-production processes of whale ES as well as its main stages, inputs, and flows. These processes are illustrated using examples from ARCPATH case studies of coastal communities dependent on whale resources: Húsavík in Iceland, Andenes in Norway, and Ilulissat/Disko Bay in Greenland. The chapter aims to improve the understanding of the human dimensions of ES and the underlying processes that enable Arctic coastal communities to benefit from whales. It provides a starting point for further analysis of possible research and management approaches regarding whale resources in the Arctic.

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Willingness to pay for expansion of the whale sanctuary in Faxaflói Bay, Iceland: A contingent valuation study

Commercial whaling is a divisive issue in Iceland, and often considered to be irreconcilable with whale watching. The coexistence of both activities in Faxaflói Bay, adjacent to the capital city of Reykjavík, has led to the designation of part of the bay as a whale sanctuary, where whaling is banned. The study utilises the contingent valuation method to elicit the preferences of Icelanders and estimate their willingness to pay (WTP) to expand the sanctuary to the full extent of Faxaflói Bay, with an aim to inform marine spatial planning in Iceland. Using the double-bounded dichotomous approach, the mean WTP for expansion of the Faxaflói Bay Whale Sanctuary was estimated to be 5082 ISK/42 USD per person (1.32 billion ISK/10.9 million USD when multiplied by the number of taxpayers), and 29.7% of the respondents with clearly defined preferences expressed positive WTP. According to the logit regression model, statistically significant socioeconomic and attitudinal variables included age, gender, level of education, number of persons in a household, and attitudes towards environmental conservation and whaling. Policy implications of non-market valuation of marine ES are discussed, pointing to a need to further assess the multiple marine ES values applying a transdisciplinary approach to inform decision-making.

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Ecosystem services in the Arctic: a thematic review

The study presents the first systematic review of the existing literature on Arctic ES. Applying the Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis (SALSA) and snowballing methods and three selection criteria, 33 publications were sourced, including peer-reviewed articles, policy papers and scientific reports, and their content synthesised using the thematic analysis method. Five key themes were identified: (1) general discussion of Arctic ES, (2) Arctic social-ecological systems, (3) ES valuation, (4) ES synergies and/or trade-offs, and (5) integrating the ES perspective into management. The meta-synthesis of the literature reveals that the ES concept is increasingly being applied in the Arctic context in all five themes, but there remain large knowledge gaps concerning mapping, assessment, economic valuation, analysis of synergies, trade-offs, and underlying mechanisms, and the social effects of ES changes. Even though ES are discussed in most publications as being relevant for policy, there are few practical examples of its direct application to management. The study concludes that more primary studies of Arctic ES are needed on all of the main themes as well as governance initiatives to move Arctic ES research from theory to practice.

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Peering into the fire – An exploration of volcanic ecosystem services

Volcanic ecosystem services (ES) is a subject that has been overlooked by the vast ecosystem services literature, where the spotlight has been focused on the many ecosystem disservices (ED) of volcanic hazards. This study conducts a literature review using the Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis (SALSA) framework, identifying the main ES common to volcanic environments. The Common International Classification for Ecosystem Services typology is utilised to provide a classification of volcanic ES. A diverse array of 18 ES are identified, categorised as follows: provisioning (8), regulation and maintenance (2), and cultural (8). Resilience is a key property underpinning the ecological processes, functions and productivity of Andosols, which are often some of the most fertile soils on the planet. However, careful management of Andosols, volcano-themed national parks and geothermal energy resources remains necessary to ensure that the flow of related ES is sustainable. Through sustainable soil and geothermal energy resource management, volcanic ES can make a long-term contribution to the tackling of climate change, including the partial offsetting of greenhouse gas emissions released via volcanic degassing during eruptions. Sustainable tourism management can ensure the protection, conservation and economic development of volcanic sites of high geo-heritage value, including national parks and geoparks, where the distinct aesthetics of such environments underpin the recreational and tourist experience.

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Capital assets underpinning economic well-being – the example of whale ecosystem services in Arctic coastal communities

Arctic coastal communities are a part of co-evolving marine social-ecological systems (SES), which support livelihoods, provide sustenance and underpin cultural identity. Whale ecosystem services (ES) represent a useful lens for gaining greater understanding of the linkages between marine ecosystems and human well-being, in the Arctic and beyond. The increasingly popular well-being economy paradigm recognises the contribution of different capital assets to human well-being and how these underpin the pursuit of sustainability domains: environmental, social and economic. This study explores the ways in which capital assets (natural, social, human, and financial and physical) provide essential natural and non-natural inputs into the delivery of whale ES in Arctic coastal communities. Through the deployment of a well-being economy framework linking capital assets to well-being goals and domains, examples are reported from three Arctic coastal communities in Iceland, Norway and Greenland. These case studies are based on data collected using multiple qualitative research methods: stakeholder mapping, participant and non-participant observations, literature reviews, and 54 semi-structured interviews with various stakeholders. The findings affirm that non-natural capital assets interact with natural capital in order to supply various whale ES, which include but are not limited to provisioned food products, recreational tourism, education, and artistic expressions. These results are significant since they provide a basis for understanding when, where and how decision-makers should intervene in whale ES delivery to maximise well-being and sustainability.

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