Reports

Results of continuous monitoring of undesirable substances in seafood from the resource 2018

Published:

26/02/2019

Authors:

Sophie Jensen, Natasa Desnica, Branka Borojevic, Svanhildur Hauksdóttir, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Ministry of Industry and Innovation

contact

Sophie Jensen

Project Manager

sophie.jensen@matis.is

Results of continuous monitoring of undesirable substances in seafood from the resource 2018

This report summarizes the results obtained in 2018 for the screening of various undesirable substances in the edible part of Icelandic marine catches.

The main aim of this project is to gather data and evaluate the status of Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances and to utilize the data to estimate the exposure of consumers to these substances from Icelandic seafood and risks related to public health. The surveillance program began in 2003 and was carried out for ten consecutive years before it was interrupted. The project was revived in March 2017 to fill in gaps of knowledge regarding the level of undesirable substances in economically important marine catches for Icelandic export. Due to financial limitations the surveillance now only covers screening for undesirable substances in the edible portion of marine catches for human consumption and not feed or feed components. The limited financial resources have also required the analysis of PAHs, PBDEs and PFCs to be excluded from the surveillance, providing somewhat more limited information than in 2013. However, it is considered a long-term project where extension and revision is constantly necessary.

In general, the results obtained in 2018 were in agreement with previous results on undesirable substances in the edible part of marine catches obtained in the monitoring years 2003 to 2012 and 2017.

In this report from the surveillance program, the maximum levels for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs (Regulation No 1259/2011) were used to evaluate how Icelandic seafood products measure up to limits currently in effect.

The results show that with regard to the maximum levels set in the regulation, the edible parts of Icelandic seafood products contain negligible amounts of dioxins, dioxin like and non-dioxin-like PCBs. In fact, all samples of seafood analyzed in 2018 were below EC maximum levels.

Furthermore, the concentration of ICES6-PCBs was found to be low in the edible part of the marine catches, compared to the maximum limits set by the EU (Commission Regulation 1259/2011).

The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals, eg cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in the edible part of marine catches were always well below the maximum limits set by the EU.

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Reports

Results of continuous monitoring of undesirable substances in seafood from the resource 2017 / Undesirable substances in seafood - results from the Icelandic marine monitoring activities in the year 2017

Published:

17/01/2018

Authors:

Sophie Jensen, Natasa Desnica, Erna Óladóttir, Branka Borojevic, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Atvinnuvega- og nýsköpunarráðuneytið / Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture

contact

Sophie Jensen

Project Manager

sophie.jensen@matis.is

Results of continuous monitoring of undesirable substances in seafood from the resource 2017 / Undesirable substances in seafood - results from the Icelandic marine monitoring activities in the year 2017

This report summarizes the results of monitoring of undesirable substances in edible parts of seafood in 2017. The monitoring began in 2003 with the help of the then Ministry of Fisheries, the current Ministry of Industry and Innovation, and Matís ohf. on the collection of data and the publication of reports for this systematic monitoring during the period 2003-2012. In recent years, there has been a lack of funds to continue work on this monitoring project, so this important data collection was suspended as well as the publication of results in the period 2013-2016. in edible parts of seafood from the resource intended for human consumption, but not fishmeal and fish oil for feed. For the same reason, no chemical analyzes were performed on PAH, PBDE and PFC substances this time. The aim of the project is to demonstrate the position of Icelandic seafood in terms of safety and health and to use the data in the risk assessment of food to ensure the interests of consumers and public health. The project builds a knowledge base on the amount of undesirable substances in economically important species and marine products, it is defined as a long-term project where monitoring and review is constantly necessary. In general, the results obtained in 2017 were in line with previous results from 2003 to 2012. The results showed that Icelandic seafood contains an insignificant amount of persistent organic pollutants such as dioxins, PCBs and pesticides. EU maximum levels for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in food and feed were lowered on 1 January 2012 (EU Regulation No. 1259/2011) and maximum levels were set for "non-dioxin-like" PCBs (NDL-PCBs) for the first time ). The new maximum values are used in this report to assess how Icelandic seafood meets EU requirements. The results for 2017 show that despite the change in maximum levels for dioxins, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs, all samples of marine products for human consumption are below the EU maximum levels for persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals. The concentration of so-called ICES6-PCBs turned out to be low in the edible part of fish, compared to the new EU maximum values. The results also showed that the concentration of heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in Icelandic seafood was always below the EU maximum values.

This report summarizes the results obtained in 2017 for the screening of various undesirable substances in the edible part of marine catches. The surveillance program began in 2003 and was carried out for ten consecutive years before it was interrupted. The project was revived in March 2017 to fill in gaps of knowledge regarding the level of undesirable substances in economically important marine catches for Icelandic export. Due to financial restrictions the surveillance now only covers screening for undesirable substances in the edible portion of marine catches for human consumption not feed or feed components. The limited financial resources also required that the analysis of PAHs, PBDEs and PFCs were excluded in the surveillance, and therefore this report provides somewhat more limited data than previously. However, it is considered to be a long-term project where extension and revision is constantly necessary. The main aim of this project is to gather data and evaluate the status of Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances and to utilize the data to estimate the exposure of consumers to these substances from Icelandic seafood and risks related to public health. Generally, the results obtained in 2017 are in agreement with previous results on undesirable substances in the edible part of marine catches obtained in the monitoring years 2003 to 2012. The results show that the edible parts of Icelandic seafood products contain negligible amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as; dioxins, dioxin like PCBs and pesticides. As of January 1st 2012 Commission Regulation No 1259/2011, regarding maximum levels for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuff came into force. This amendment to the existing regulation (No 1881/2006) resulted in changes in maximum levels for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs for many food products due to changes in toxicological assessment of dioxins. Furthermore, maximum levels for non-dioxin-like PCBs have now been established in foodstuffs. In this report, we use these revised maximum levels for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and nondioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs to evaluate how Icelandic seafood products measure up to limits currently in effect. The results obtained year 2017 reveal that all samples of seafood for human consumption were below EC maximum levels for POPs and heavy metals. Furthermore, the concentration of ICES6-PCBs was found to be low in the edible part of fish muscle, compared to the maximum limits set by the EU (Commission Regulation 1259/2011). The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals, eg cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in Icelandic seafood products was always well below the maximum limits set by EU.

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Reports

Survey of inorganic trace elements and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH) in mussels and sediments at Grundartangi, Hvalfjörður, 2016 / Evaluation of inorganic trace elements and aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and sediment at Grundartangi, Hvalfjörður, 2016

Published:

07/03/2017

Authors:

Halldór Pálmar Halldórsson, Hermann Dreki Guls, Natasa Desnica, Erna Óladóttir, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir, Kristín Ólafsdóttir

Supported by:

Norðurál hf., Elkem Ísland ehf

contact

Natasa Desnica

Group Leader

natasa@matis.is

Survey of inorganic trace elements and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH) in mussels and sediments at Grundartangi, Hvalfjörður, 2016 / Evaluation of inorganic trace elements and aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and sediment at Grundartangi, Hvalfjörður, 2016

The aim of the study is to assess the possible polluting effects of industrial plants at Grundartangi on the marine environment in Hvalfjörður. Environmental monitoring began in 2000 and was repeated in 2004, 2007, 2011 and 2013, as well as the implementation of monitoring was reviewed, including the addition of sampling points and the number of measuring factors increased. This report reports the results of monitoring measurements in samples from 2016. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) were placed in cages at seven different stations along the coast at Grundartangi, north of Hvalfjörður, including one reference point at Saurbæjarvík in the fjord. The mussel cages were then taken up and the mussels examined two months later. To assess the natural fluctuations in the concentration of substances and the growth of mussels, one control sample was taken and frozen as soon as the mussels were put out for cultivation. Mortality and growth of mussels together with the main components (water, fat, ash and salt) were measured at the end of the study. The following inorganic trace elements and organic compounds were also measured in the soft tissue of mussels; arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, mercury, selenium, lead, vanadium, aluminum, iron, fluorine and 16 polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but the latter were reduced by two (perylene and benzo (e) pyrene) to at the request of the buyer. PAHs were also measured in sediment samples taken at the same locations as the mussel samples. There was not much difference between stations, neither in terms of biological factors nor the main components of mussels. Mortality was low and in general the mussel seemed to be doing well. Inorganic trace elements were at a similar concentration or lower compared to previous studies and were measured at a similar concentration as in mussels from unpolluted places around the country and always at a lower concentration than the Norwegian limit for contaminated areas. Cadmium (Cd), however, was measured above the Norwegian minimum limit, but its concentration in mussels decreased at the factory sites during the growing season. It is therefore not considered that high cadmium concentrations are associated with the industrial plants at Grundartangi, but rather naturally high background concentrations in the Icelandic environment. In cases where there are maximum levels for inorganic trace elements in food (Cd, Hg, Pb), their concentration in mussels after two months at sea near the industrial plants was always well below the maximum levels for food. Only 3 PAHs were detected above the limit of detection in mussels, the same as in 2013: pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene (perylene was also detected in 2013 but was omitted this time). Pyrene was at its highest concentration of the 3 PAHs detected, except in Bank 1 where fluoranthene was at its highest concentration. The concentration of PAHs in mussels was insignificant and always below the Norwegian limit for contaminated areas for mussels. All 16 PAHs were detected in all sediment samples and their total amount ranged from 209-791 µg / kg dry weight. It is likely that these PAHs in the sediment are related to industrial activities and shipping traffic in the area. Compared with Norwegian reference values, all measured sampling sites except two are classified as mild impact areas where PAH concentration is higher compared to the definition of background area. This is the second time that the concentration of PAHs is measured in sediment samples in the environmental monitoring of the industrial plants at Grundartangi and the total amount of PAH substances in the sediment was lower this year compared to 2013. The effect of the industrial plants on mussels in the vicinity of Grundartangi seems limited. substances measured in this study. The effects on the sediment's ecosystem are therefore likely to be insignificant, given the Norwegian and Canadian exposure limits of PAHs. However, it is still necessary to closely monitor and monitor the environment and the ecosystem in order to detect changes in the pollution load in this area.

The aim of this study is to estimate potential impact of organic and inorganic pollutants on the costal marine ecosystem in proximity to the industrial activities at Grundartangi in Hvalfjörður. The monitoring started in the year 2000 and has since then been revised in terms of additional sampling sites and measured elements, but the monitoring has been repeated in the years 2004, 2007, 2011 and 2013. This report summarizes the results obtained in the study performed in 2016. Caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) from a homogenous population were positioned at seven different locations along the coast close to Grundartangi industries including a reference cage at Saurbæjarvík. The mussel cages were then retrieved after a two month monitoring period. In order to enable assessment of natural changes in compound concentration and mussel size over time, a reference sample was taken from the mussel pool when the cages were initially deployed at their monitoring sites. Death rate and growth of mussels as well as their main constituents (water, fat, ash and salt) were evaluated at the end of the monitoring period. Similarly, the following trace elements and organic compounds were analyzed in the soft mussel tissue: As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Hg, Se, Pb, V, Al, Fe, F and 16 PAHs (two compounds, perylene and benzo (e) pyrene were omitted this time). PAHs were also analyzed in sediment samples taken from the same sites. Little variation was observed in main constituents and biological factors between the different sampling sites. Death rate was low and the mussels thrived well. In general, inorganic trace elements were similar or in lower concentrations compared to previous years and always below the Norwegian environmental standards, except in the case of cadmium (Cd) that exceeded the lowest Norwegian environmental limit. The Cd concentration decreased in the mussels during the monitoring period which indicates that the Cd concentration is not related to the industrial activities at Grundartangi, but rather to high natural Cd background concentration in the Icelandic environment. However, Cd as well as Hg and Pb meet the EU maximum limits for food consumption. Only 3 PAH compounds were detected above limits of quantification in the musselsamples. Pyrene was always at the highest concentration while phenanthrene and fluoranthene were at lower concentration, except at banki 1, where fluoranthene was the highest. The PAH concentrations never exceeded the Norwegian standards for total PAH concentration for mussels. All 16 PAHs were detected in all sediment samples with total PAHs ranging 209-791 /g / kg. All sites except for the reference site and S1 fall into the category slightly impacted sites due to increased PAH concentrations when compared to Norwegian reference values and below threshold effect levels compared to Canadian criteria. This is the second time that PAHs are analyzed in sediment samples to monitor the impact of the industrial activities at Grundartangi and total levels of PAH are now somewhat lower than observed in 2013. In conclusion, the effects of the industries at Grundartangi appear to be limited for the chemical compounds analyzed in the mussels. The impact on biota sediment also appears to be low. However, it is important to maintain frequent monitoring studies on the marine ecosystem near the Grundartangi industrial area in order to detect changes in pollution burden.

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Reports

Survey of inorganic trace elements and aromatic polycyclic (PAH) in mussels and sediments at Grundartangi, Hvalfjörður, 2013 / Evaluation of inorganic trace elements and aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and sediment at Grundartangi, Hvalfjörður, 2013

Published:

01/02/2014

Authors:

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Natasa Desnica, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Norðurál hf., Elkem hf

Survey of inorganic trace elements and aromatic polycyclic (PAH) in mussels and sediments at Grundartangi, Hvalfjörður, 2013 / Evaluation of inorganic trace elements and aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and sediment at Grundartangi, Hvalfjörður, 2013

The aim of the study is to assess the possible polluting effects of industrial plants at Grundartangi on the marine environment in Hvalfjörður. Environmental monitoring began in 2000 and was repeated in 2004, 2007 and 2011, as well as the implementation of monitoring was reviewed, including the addition of sampling sites and the number of measuring factors increased. This report reports the results of monitoring measurements on samples from 2013. Wild mussels (Mytilus edulis) were placed in cages at seven different stations along the coast at Grundartangi, on the north side of Hvalfjörður, including one reference point at Saurbæjarvík. The mussel cages were then picked up and examined two months later. To assess natural fluctuations in the concentration of substances and the size of mussels, one control sample was taken and frozen as soon as the mussel was put out for cultivation. Mortality and growth of mussels together with the main components (water, fat, ash and salt) were measured at the end of the study. The following inorganic trace elements and organic compounds were also measured in the soft tissue of mussels; arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, mercury, selenium, lead, vanadium, aluminum, iron, fluorine and 18 polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs were also measured in sediment samples taken at the same locations as the mussel samples. There was not much difference between the stations, neither in terms of biological factors nor the main chemical factors in mussels. Mortality was low and in general the mussel seemed to be doing well. Inorganic trace elements were at a similar concentration or lower compared to previous studies and were measured at a similar concentration as in mussels from unpolluted places around the country and always at a lower concentration than the Norwegian limit for contaminated areas. Cadmium (Cd) was measured above the Norwegian minimum limit, but its concentration in mussels decreased during the fire at the factory sites. Therefore, it is not considered that high cadmium concentrations are associated with the industrial plants at Grundartangi, but are naturally associated with high background concentrations in the Icelandic environment. In cases where there are maximum levels for inorganic trace elements in food (Cd, Hg, Pb) their concentration in mussels after two months at sea near the establishments is always well below the maximum levels for food. Only 4 PAHs were detected above the volume detection limit in mussels, which is more than in 2011. Perylene and pyrene were always in the highest concentration of the 4 PAHs detected, but phenanthrene and fluoranthena in the lower concentration. However, the concentration of PAHs in mussels was always below the Norwegian limit values for contaminated areas for mussels. PAHs were detected in all but one of the sediment samples and it is likely that these PAHs in the sediment are related to industrial activities and shipping traffic in the area. Compared to the Norwegian reference values, all measured sediment sampling sites, outside the reference site, are classified as mild mild areas where the increase in PAH concentration is measured based on the definition of background area. This is the first time that measurements of PAHs have been carried out in sediment samples in this environmental monitoring for the industrial plants at Grundartangi and therefore it is not possible to compare the results with previous measurements. The effects of the industrial plants on mussels around Grundartangi appear to be limited if the substances measured in this study are taken into account. The impact on the ecosystem could be small, but small, compared to Norwegian and Canadian borders. It is therefore necessary to closely monitor and monitor the environment and the ecosystem in order to detect changes in pollution levels in this area. It is recommended to add another reference point outside Hvalfjörður.

The aim of this study is to estimate potential impacts of organic and inorganic pollutants on the costal marine ecosystem in proximity to the industrial activities at Grundartangi. The monitoring started in the year 2000 and hassince then been revised in terms of additional sample sites and measured elements and repeated in 2004, 2007 and 2011. This report summarizes the results obtained in the study performed in 2013. Caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) from a homogenous population were positioned at seven different locations along the coast close to Grundartangi industries including a reference cage at Saurbæjarvík. The mussel cages were then taken up after a two month monitoring period. In order to enable assessment of natural changes in compound concentration and mussel size over time, a reference sample was taken from the mussel pool when the cages were initially deployed at their monitoring sites. Death rate and growth of mussels as well as their main constituents (water, fat, ash and salt) were evaluated at the end of the monitoring period. Similarly, the following trace elements and organic compounds were analyzed in the soft mussel tissue: As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Hg, Se, Pb, V, Al, Fe, F and 18 PAHs. PAHs were also analyzed in sediment samples taken from the same sites. Little variation was observed in main constituents and biological factors between the different sample sites. Death rate was low and the mussels thrived well. In general, inorganic trace elements were similar or in lower concentration compared to previous years and always below the Norwegian environmental standards, except in the case of cadmium (Cd) that exceeded the lowest Norwegian environmental limit. The Cd concentration decreased in the mussels during the monitoring period which indicates that the Cd concentration is not related to the industrial activity at Grundartangi, but rather to a natural high Cd background concentration in the Icelandic environment. However, Cd as well as Hg and Pb meet the EU maximum limits for food consumption. Only 4 PAH congeners were detected above limits of quantification in the mussel samples. Perylene and pyrene were always in highest concentration of the 4 PAH congeners detected while phenanthrene and fluoranthrene were in lower concentration. The PAH concentration never exceeded the Norwegian standards for total PAH concentration for mussels. All or most PAHs were detected in all sediment samples except that no PAHs were detected at one sample site (S6). All sites except for the reference site fall into the category slight or moderate impactsites due increase in PAH concentration when compared to Norwegian reference values and below occasional effect levels compared to Canadian criteria. This is the first time that PAHs are analyzed in sediment samples to monitor the impact of the industrial activities at Grundartangi and thus it is not possible to compare these results with previous monitoring results. In conclusion, the effects of the industries at Grundartangi appear to be limited for the chemical compounds analyzed in the mussels. The impact on biota sediment seems to be low to moderate. Therefore, it is important to maintain frequent monitoring studies of the marine ecosystem near the Grundartanga industrial activities in order to be able to detect changes in pollution burden. An additional reference site in the outer parts of Hvalfjörður is recommended.

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Reports

Pollution monitoring in the marine environment around Iceland 2011 and 2012 / Monitoring of the marine biosphere around Iceland 2011 and 2012

Published:

01/08/2013

Authors:

Hrönn Jörundsdóttir, Natasa Desnica, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources & Ministry of Industries and Innovation

Pollution monitoring in the marine environment around Iceland 2011 and 2012 / Monitoring of the marine biosphere around Iceland 2011 and 2012

This report presents the results of an annual monitoring project funded by the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, as well as the Ministry of Industry and Innovation. The purpose of this monitoring is to fulfill Iceland's obligations under the Oslo and Paris Agreements (OSPAR), as well as the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring Assessment Program). The data are part of Iceland's contribution to the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) database. The Marine Research Institute collects samples and Matís oversees the preparation of samples and measurements of trace elements in the marine environment. The samples are measured at Matís and at the University of Iceland Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology. Various inorganic trace elements and chloro-organic substances were measured in cod caught in Hafró's annual spring rally in March 2012 and in mussels collected at 11 locations around the country in August / September 2011. Monitoring in the marine environment around Iceland began in 1989 and samples are collected once a year. for a year and worked according to international sampling instructions. The data is collected in a database, the report provides overview images for some of the materials monitored. Cadmium is regionally higher in Icelandic mussels compared to mussels from other countries. The results show changes in the pattern of chlorine organic matter in mussels collected near Hvalstöðin in Hvalfjörður in September 2011. The concentration of chlorine organic substances increased in 2009 and 2010 but decreased in samples from 2011 and has become comparable to the concentration measured before 2009. The concentration of DDEs is however, it was higher than before 2009. There were no visible changes in the concentration of these substances at the mussel collection point at Hvammsvík in Hvalfjörður or at any other collection site around the country that was studied in 2011. It is important to monitor these changes in the pattern of chlorine organic matter in mussels. in the monitoring project in the coming years to see how they change. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is in progress, i.e. Scientific methods can be used to estimate the increase or decrease of pollutants in the marine environment in Iceland.

This report contains results of the annual monitoring of the biosphere around Iceland in 2011 and 2012. The project, overseen by the Environment Agency of Iceland, is to fulfill the OSPAR (Oslo and Paris agreement) and AMAP (Arctic Monitoring Assessment Program) agreements. The project was funded by the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources as well as the Ministry of Industries and Innovation. The data obtained is a part of Iceland's contribution to the ICES databank (ices.dk). The collection of data started 1989. Matís is the coordinator for marine biota monitoring and is responsible for methods relating to sampling, preparation and analysis of samples. The samples were analyzed at Matís and the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Iceland. Trace metals and organochlorines were analyzed in cod (Gadus morhua) caught in March 2011 and in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) collected from 11 sites in August / Sept 2011. Marine monitoring began in Iceland 1989 and the sampling is carried out according to standardized sampling guidelines. Changes were observed in the organochlorine concentration patterns in blue mussels collected year 2011 at the sampling site Hvalstod in Hvalfjordur. The concentration of organochlorines increased in the years 2009 and 2010 but decreased in the samples from 2011 and is in line with the concentration of organohalogens in mussels before 2009. No noteworthy increase in organochlorine concentrations was however observed in blue mussels obtained at Hvammsvík in Hvalfjordur nor any of the other sample sites studied year 2011. These results need to be followed up in the annual monitoring of the biosphere around Iceland next year to see if this change in contaminant concentration pattern continues. A thorough statistical evaluation is on ‐ going on all the available data from this monitoring program to analyze spatial and temporal trends of pollutants in the Icelandic marine biosphere.

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Reports

Undesirable substances in seafood products - results from the Icelandic marine monitoring activities in the year 2012

Published:

01/05/2013

Authors:

Sophie Jensen, Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Natasa Desnica, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Atvinnuvega‐ og nýsköpunarráðuneytið / Ministry of Industries and Innovation

contact

Sophie Jensen

Project Manager

sophie.jensen@matis.is

Undesirable substances in seafood products - results from the Icelandic marine monitoring activities in the year 2012

This report summarizes the results of monitoring for undesirable substances in seafood, fishmeal and fish oil for feed since 2012. The EU maximum levels for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in food and feed were recently lowered and maximum levels were set for the first time. set for "non-dioxin-like" PCBs (NDL-PCBs). The new maximum values are used in this report to assess how Icelandic seafood meets EU requirements. The monitoring began in 2003 with the help of the then Ministry of Fisheries, the current Ministry of Industry and Innovation, and has now been carried out for ten consecutive years. The project builds a knowledge base on the amount of undesirable substances in economically important species and marine products, it is defined as a long-term project where monitoring and review are constantly necessary. In 2012, emphasis was placed on gathering information on the organic compounds PFC and inorganic trace elements in edible seafood, but also in fishmeal and fish oil for feed. In general, the results obtained in 2012 were in line with previous results from 2003 to 2011. The results showed that Icelandic seafood contains insignificant amounts of persistent organic pollutants such as dioxins, PCBs, pesticides and PBDEs. This was the second year that PFCs have been detected in Icelandic seafood and perfluorooctane sulfon amide (PFOSA) was the only PFC substance that exceeded the detection limit, other PFC substances were not measured. The results from 2012 showed that despite the change in maximum levels for dioxins, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs (EU Regulation No. 1259/2011), all samples of seafood for human consumption are below the EU maximum levels for persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals. The concentration of reference PCBs (marker PCBs) turned out to be minimal in the edible part of the fish, compared to the new maximum EU values. The results also showed that the concentration of heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in Icelandic seafood was always below the EU maximum values. In March 2012, EU Regulation No. 277/2012 entered into force, lowering maximum levels for dioxins and DL-PCBs in animal feed, but also setting maximum levels for NDL-PCBs. Despite this change, all samples of fishmeal and fish oil for feed were measured below maximum levels, with the exception of one blue whiting meal sample containing toxafen above EU maximum levels.

This report summarizes the results obtained in 2012 for the screening of various undesirable substances in the edible part of marine catches, fish meal and fish oil for feed. The newly established maximum levels for dioxins, dioxin ‐ like PCB and non dioxin ‐ like PCB in foodstuffs and animal feed are used to evaluate how Icelandic seafood products measure up to EC limits currently in effect. The surveillance program began in 2003 and has now been carried out for ten consecutive years. The project fills in gaps of knowledge regarding the level of undesirable substances in economically important marine catches for Icelandic export. It is considered to be a long ‐ term project where extension and revision are constantly necessary. In the year 2012 emphasis was placed on gathering information on the organic compounds PFCs and inorganic trace elements in the edible part of marine catches as well as in the fish meal and fish oil for feed. Generally, the results obtained in 2012 are in agreement with previous results from the years 2003 to 2011. The results show that the Icelandic seafood products contain negligible amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins, dioxin like PCBs, pesticides and PBDEs. This is the second time PFCs are analyzed in Icelandic seafood and fish products and the results show that the main PFC compound, perfluorooctane sulfone amide (PFOSA) was the only congener detected. The results obtained in the year 2012 reveal that despite the recent change by the EC in maximum levels for dioxins, dioxin ‐ like PCB and non dioxin ‐ like PCB in foodstuffs, all samples of seafood for human consumption were below EC maximum levels for POPs and heavy metals. Furthermore, the concentration of marker PCBs was found to be low in the edible part of fish muscle, compared to the maximum limits set by the EU (Commission Regulation 1259/2011). The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals, eg cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in Icelandic seafood products was always well below the maximum limits set by EU. In March 2012 Commission Regulation No 277/2012, regarding maximum levels for dioxins and PCBs in animal feed came into effect and after the implementation of this regulation maximum levels are now also set for non dioxin ‐ like PCBs. Despite of this change all samples of fish meal and fish oil for feed measured were below the EC maximum limits for feed components of marine origin except for one blue whiting meal sample that exceeds the maximum limits for toxaphene.

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Reports

Monitoring of the marine biosphere around Iceland 2010 and 2011 / Pollution monitoring in the marine environment around Iceland 2010 and 2011

Published:

01/07/2012

Authors:

Hrönn Jörundsdóttir, Natasa Desnica, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Ministry of the Environment and Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture

contact

Natasa Desnica

Group Leader

natasa@matis.is

Monitoring of the marine biosphere around Iceland 2010 and 2011 / Pollution monitoring in the marine environment around Iceland 2010 and 2011

This report presents the results of an annual monitoring project funded by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture. The purpose of this monitoring is to fulfill Iceland's obligations under the Oslo and Paris Agreements (OSPAR), as well as the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring Assessment Program). The data is part of Iceland's contribution to the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) database. The Marine Research Institute collects samples and Matís oversees the preparation of samples and measurements of trace elements in the marine environment. The samples are measured at Matís and at the University of Iceland Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology. Various inorganic trace elements and chloro-organic substances were measured in cod caught in Hafró's annual spring rally in March 2011 and in mussels collected at 11 locations around the country in August / September 2010. Monitoring in the marine environment around Iceland began in 1989 and samples are collected once a year. for a year and worked according to international sampling instructions. The data is collected in a database, the report provides overview images for some of the materials monitored. Cadmium is regionally higher in Icelandic mussels compared to mussels from other countries. The results show changes in the pattern of chlorine organic matter in mussels collected near Hvalstöðin in Hvalfjörður in September 2010 which are comparable to results from the same place since 2009. There were no visible changes in the concentration of these substances at the mussel collection point at Hvammsvík in Hvalfjörður or at any another collection site around the country that was studied in 2010. It is important to monitor these changes in the pattern of the concentration of chloro-organic substances in mussels in the monitoring project in the coming years to see if they are still present. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is in progress, i.e. Scientific methods can be used to estimate the increase or decrease of pollutants in the marine environment in Iceland.  

This report contains results of the annual monitoring of the biosphere around Iceland in 2010 and 2011. The project, overseen by the Environmental and Food Agency of Iceland, is to fulfill the OSPAR (Oslo and Paris agreement) and AMAP (Arctic Monitoring Assessment Program) agreements. The project was funded by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture. The data obtained is a part of Iceland´s contribution to the ICES databank (ices.dk). The collection of data started 1989. Matís is the coordinator for marine biota monitoring and is responsible for methods relating to sampling, preparation and analysis of samples. The samples were analyzed at Matís and the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Iceland. Trace metals and organochlorines were analyzed in cod (Gadus morhua) caught in March 2011 and in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) collected from 11 sites in August / Sept 2010. Marine monitoring began in Iceland 1989 and the sampling is carried out according to standardized sampling guidelines. Changes were observed in the organochlorine concentration patterns in blue mussels collected year 2010 at the sampling site Hvalstod in Hvalfjordur which are in line with results obtained year 2009. No noteworthy increase in organochlorine concentrations was however observed in blue mussels obtained at Hvammsvík in Hvalfjordur nor any of the other sample sites studied year 2010. These results need to be followed up in the annual monitoring of the biosphere around Iceland next year to see if this change in contaminant concentration pattern continues. A thorough statistical evaluation is on ‐ going on all the available data from this monitoring program to analyze spatial and temporal trends of pollutants in the Icelandic marine biosphere.

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Reports

Undesirable substances in seafood products - results from the Icelandic marine monitoring activities in the year 2011

Published:

01/05/2012

Authors:

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Vordís Baldursdóttir, Natasa Desnica, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture

Undesirable substances in seafood products - results from the Icelandic marine monitoring activities in the year 2011

In 2003, at the initiative of the Ministry of Fisheries, monitoring of undesirable substances in marine products, both for human consumption and products for the fish oil and flour industry, began. Matís has been entrusted with the supervision of the monitoring project. The purpose of the monitoring is to assess the condition of Icelandic marine products with regard to the amount of contaminants. The aim is also to collect independent scientific data on undesirable substances in seafood for the government, the fishing industry and buyers and consumers of Icelandic seafood. The data collected in the monitoring project will also be used in risk assessment and to build up a database on contaminants in the Icelandic ecosystem. Coverage of contaminants in marine products, both in the mainstream media and in scientific journals, has many times demanded the response of the Icelandic government. It is necessary to have scientific results available that show the actual condition of Icelandic seafood in order to prevent damage that may result from such coverage. Furthermore, the limits of contaminants are under constant review and it is important for Icelanders to participate in such a review and support their case with scientific data. This shows the importance of regular monitoring and that Iceland conducts independent research on such an important issue as marine product pollution. This report is a summary of the results of the monitoring for 2011. Assessment of the condition of Icelandic marine products with regard to contaminants is a long-term project and will only be carried out through continuous monitoring. Every year, therefore, the missing data is carefully reviewed, thus aiming to fill in the gaps. In 2011, for the first time, so-called PFC substances were measured in Icelandic seafood intended for human consumption as well as products for the fish oil and flour industry, but PFC substances are surfactants that have received increased attention due to their persistence and toxicity. The following substances were also measured: dioxin, dioxin-like PCBs and pointer PCBs, PBDEs, metals, as well as 12 different types of pesticides. In 2011, grayling roe was also measured, along with cod roe, gillnets and liver to assess the distribution of pollutants in these organs. Of the PCFs, PFOS was the only PFC that was detected above the limit of detection and the concentration of PFOS was generally low. As before, a small amount of undesirable substances was generally measured in Icelandic seafood in 2011 and no sample was measured with undesirable substances above the limit value.

This screening of undesirable substances in seafood products was initiated by the Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture in the year 2003. Until then, this type of monitoring had been limited in Iceland. Matis was assigned the responsibility of carrying out the surveillance program, which has now been ongoing for eight consecutive years. The purpose of the project is to gather information and evaluate the status of Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances. Further, the aim of the project is to provide independent scientific data on undesirable substances in Icelandic seafood for food authorities, fisheries authorities, industry, markets and consumers. The information will also be utilized for a risk assessment and gathering of reference data. This report summarizes the results obtained in the year 2011 for the screening of various undesirable substances in the edible part of marine catches, fish meal and fish oil for feed. The evaluation of the status of the Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances is a long term project which can only be reached through continuous gathering of data. For this reason, both the undesirable substances and seafood samples are carefully selected each year with the aim to fill in the gaps of the available data. Thus, the project fills in gaps of knowledge regarding the level of undesirable substances in economically important marine catches for Icelandic export. In the year 2011, PFCs were analyzed for the first time in the edible part of fish, fish oil and meal for feed from Icelandic fishing grounds but PFCs is a group of surfactants that have received increased attention due to their persistence and toxic effects. In addition, data was collected on dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs, 12 different types of pesticides, PBDEs and trace metals. Samples collected in 2011 generally contained low concentrations of undesirable substances. The year 2011, lumpfish roes as well as roes, sperm and liver of cod were analyzed in order to estimate the organ distribution of pollutants. PFOS was the only PFC analyzed above limits of detection and its concentration was generally low. These results are in agreement with our previous results obtained in the monitoring program in the years 2003 to 2010. No sample contained undesirable compounds exceeding the maximum level set by the EU.

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Reports

Monitoring of the marine biosphere around Iceland 2009 and 2010 / Pollution monitoring in the marine environment around Iceland 2009 and 2010

Published:

01/09/2011

Authors:

Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir, Natasa Desnica, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Hrönn Jörundsdóttir

Supported by:

Ministry of the Environment and Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture

Monitoring of the marine biosphere around Iceland 2009 and 2010 / Pollution monitoring in the marine environment around Iceland 2009 and 2010

This report presents the results of an annual monitoring project funded by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture. The purpose of this monitoring is to fulfill Iceland's obligations regarding the Oslo and Paris Agreement (OSPAR), as well as the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring Assessment Program). The data have been sent to the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) database. The Marine Research Institute collects samples and Matís oversees the preparation of samples and measurements of trace elements in the marine environment. The samples are measured at Matís and at the University of Iceland Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology. Various inorganic trace elements and chloro-organic substances were measured in cod caught in Hafró's annual spring rally in March 2010 and in mussels collected at 10 locations around the country in August / September 2009. Monitoring in the marine environment near Iceland began in 1989 and samples are collected once a year. for a year and worked according to international sampling instructions. The data is collected in a database, the report provides overview images for some of the materials monitored. Cadmium is regionally higher in Icelandic mussels compared to mussels from other countries. The results show changes in the pattern of chlorine organic matter in mussels collected near Hvalstöðin in Hvalfjörður in September 2009, there were no visible changes in the concentration of these substances at the mussel collection site at Hvammsvík in Hvalfjörður or at any other collection site around the country studied in 2009. Important is monitoring these changes in the pattern of concentration of chlorinated organic substances in mussels in the monitoring project in the coming years to see if they are still present. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is in progress, i.e. Scientific methods can be used to estimate the increase or decrease of pollutants in the marine environment in Iceland.

This report contains results of the annual monitoring of the biosphere around Iceland in 2009 and 2010. The project, overseen by the Environmental and Food Agency of Iceland, is to fulfill the OSPAR (Oslo and Paris agreement) and AMAP (Arctic Monitoring Assessment Program) agreements. The project was funded by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture. The data has been submitted to the ICES databank (ices.dk). The collection of data started 1989. Matís is the coordinator for marine biota monitoring and is responsible for methods relating to sampling, preparation and analysis of samples. The samples were analyzed at Matís and the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Iceland. Trace metals and organochlorines were analyzed in cod (Gadus morhua) caught in March 2010 and in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) collected in August / Sept 2009. Marine monitoring began in Iceland 1989 and the sampling is carried out according to standardized sampling guidelines. Changes were observed in the organochlorine concentration patterns in blue mussels collected year 2009 at the sampling site Hvalstod in Hvalfjordur, no noteworthy increase in organochlorine concentrations was however observed in blue mussels obtained at Hvammsvík in Hvalfjordur nor any of the other sample sites studied year 2009. These results need to be followed up in the annual monitoring of the biosphere around Iceland next year to see if this change in contaminant concentration pattern continues. A thorough statistical evaluation is ongoing on all available data from this monitoring program to analyze spatial and temporal trends of pollutants in the Icelandic marine biosphere.

View report

Reports

Undesirable substances in seafood products - results from the Icelandic marine monitoring activities in the year 2010

Published:

01/09/2011

Authors:

Vordís Baldursdóttir, Natasa Desnica, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture

Undesirable substances in seafood products - results from the Icelandic marine monitoring activities in the year 2010

In 2003, at the initiative of the Ministry of Fisheries, monitoring of undesirable substances in marine products, both for human consumption and products for the fish oil and flour industry, began. Matís has been entrusted with the supervision of the monitoring project. The purpose of the monitoring is to assess the condition of Icelandic marine products with regard to the amount of contaminants. The aim is also to collect independent scientific data on undesirable substances in marine products for the government, the fishing industry as well as buyers and consumers of Icelandic seafood. The data collected in the monitoring project will also be used in risk assessment and to build up a database on contaminants in the Icelandic ecosystem. Coverage of contaminants in marine products, both in the mainstream media and in scientific journals, has many times demanded the response of the Icelandic government. It is necessary to have scientific results available that demonstrate the actual condition of Icelandic seafood in order to prevent damage that may result from such coverage. Furthermore, the limits of contaminants are under constant review and it is important for Icelanders to participate in such a review and support their case with scientific data. This shows the importance of regular monitoring and that Iceland conducts independent research on such an important issue as marine product pollution. This report is a summary of the results of the monitoring for the year 2010. Assessment of the state of Icelandic marine products with regard to contaminants is a long-term project and will only be carried out through continuous monitoring. Every year, therefore, the missing data is carefully reviewed, thus aiming to fill in the gaps. In 2010, the following substances were measured in marine products intended for human consumption as well as products for the fish oil and flour industry: dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and pointer PCBs, PBDEs, metals, as well as 12 different types of pesticides. A special effort was made to measure PBDEs and metals in 2010 and their concentration was generally low in Icelandic seafood. As before, a small amount of undesirable substances was generally measured in Icelandic seafood in 2010. Oil and flour made from blue whiting, however, have to be close to or above the permitted limits for certain substances.

This monitoring of undesirable substances in seafood products was initiated by the Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture in the year 2003. Until then, this type of monitoring had been limited in Iceland. Matis was assigned the responsibility of carrying out the surveillance program, which has now been ongoing for seven consecutive years. The purpose of the project is to gather information and evaluate the status of Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances. Further, the aim of the project is to provide independent scientific data on undesirable substances in Icelandic seafood for food authorities, fisheries authorities, industry, markets and consumers. The information will also be utilized for a risk assessment and gathering of reference data. This report summarizes the results obtained in the year 2010 for the monitoring of various undesirable substances in the edible part of marine catches, fish meal and fish oil for feed. The monitoring began in 2003 and has now been carried out for seven consecutive years. The evaluation of the status of the Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances is a long term project which can only be reached through continuous monitoring. For this reason, we carefully select which undesirable substances are measured in the various seafood samples each year with the aim to fill in the gaps in the available data. Thus the project fills in gaps of knowledge regarding the level of undesirable substances in economically important marine catches for Icelandic export. In the year 2010, data was collected on dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs, 12 different types of pesticides, PBDEs and trace metals in the edible part of fish, fish oil and meal for feed. Samples collected in 2010 generally contained low concentrations of undesirable substances. These results are in agreement with our previous results obtained in the monitoring programs in the years 2003 to 2009. In the year 2010 emphasis was placed on gathering information on the organic compounds PBDEs and inorganic trace elements in the edible part of marine catches as well as in the fish meal and fish oil for feed. The results reveal that the concentrations of PBDEs compounds are in low in fish and fish products for feed. Blue whiting meal and oil can contain undesirable substances in concentration close to or exceeding the maximum level set by the EU.

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