Reports

Íslenskt matkorn - Gæði, inhald og viðhör / Icelandic cereal grain crops for food - Quality, chemical composition and consumer view

Published:

01/01/2012

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Þóra Valsdóttir, Þórdís Anna Kristjánsdóttir, Jón Þór Pétursson, Jónatan Hermannsson

Supported by:

Agricultural Productivity Fund, Agricultural University of Iceland

contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Íslenskt matkorn – Gæði, innihald og viðhorf / Icelandic cereal grain crops for food – Quality, chemical composition and consumer view

From 2009 to 2011, Matís and the Agricultural University of Iceland carried out a project on domestic grain for food production. The project was intended to promote the increased use of domestic cereals in food. For this purpose, quality requirements for barley were compiled and material on internal control was compiled for grain farmers' manuals. Chemical measurements of domestic cereals were also carried out, product development from cereals was supported and consumers' attitudes towards domestic barley were examined. Quality requirements for food barley and barley for brewing are set out and are intended to be a reference in business. A general text on the internal control of cereal growers can be localized for individual farms. According to chemical measurements, the starch in the domestic grain was not significantly different from that measured in imported grain. There was a lot of fiber in the domestic grain. The concentration of heavy metals in grain after the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was very low.

A project on the use of Icelandic grain crops for food production was carried out at Matis and the Agricultural University of Iceland in 2009 to 2011. The purpose of the project was to support the increasing use of domestic cereal grain crops for food production. To enable this, quality requirements were developed for barley and a handbook on internal control was written for barley processing at a farm. Proximates and inorganic elements were measured, product development was supported and finally the view of consumers towards Icelandic barley was studied. Quality requirements for barley to be used for food and alcoholic drinks were developed as a frame of reference for businesses. The text for internal control can be adapted for individual farms. The starch in Icelandic grain crops was similar to that of imported crops. The Icelandic grain crops were rich in dietary fiber. The concentrations of heavy metals in the Icelandic crops after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were very low.

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Reports

Gæðakræklingur er gulls ígildi / Icelandic blue mussels - A valuable high quality product

Published:

01/12/2011

Authors:

Natasa Desnica, Sophie Jensen, Guðrún G. Þórarinsdóttir, Jón Óskar Jónsson, Hörður G. Kristinsson, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS

contact

Natasa Desnica

Group Leader

natasa@matis.is

Gæðakræklingur er gulls ígildi / Icelandic blue mussels - A valuable high quality product

In order for Icelandic mussel farming to grow and prosper, it is important to carry out basic research into the safety and quality of fresh Icelandic mussels that can be used by producers in marketing and selling the products. The purpose of this eighteen-month research project was to collect information on the safety and quality of mussels (Mytilus edulis) in market size (> 45 mm) grown off the coast of Iceland. A total of thirteen market-sized mussel samples were collected at four different breeding sites inland (Hvalfjörður, Breiðafjörður, Álftafjörður and Eyjafjörður) at different times of the year. Market-sized mussels were not found in Eskifjörður and this breeding site was therefore excluded from the project. Instead, samples were taken more often at the other four breeding sites than originally planned. Mussels were collected from breeding lines and time and location recorded. Weight, height and body mass were measured. The mussel was sexed and the stage of puberty was estimated in each sample. In this project, significant information was collected on nutrient content (protein, water, fat, ash) as well as bioactive substances such as selenium, zinc, carotenoids and fatty acid compositions in mussels from different cultivation sites and at different seasons. Unwanted inorganic trace elements (lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, nickel, arsenic, chromium and silver) were also measured in all samples. Work was also done on setting up and testing rapid measurement methods for measuring three types of algae toxins, ie ASP, PSP and DSP. The measurement methods were optimized against the equipment available at Matís and also measured reference samples (ie mussels with a known amount of algae toxin) to assess the quality of the measurements. Two types of rapid tests available on the market were tested to assess their performance in algae toxicity measurements in mussels. On the one hand, so-called Jellet tests were tested and on the other hand ELISA tests. The result is that both tests are relatively simple to use, however, it is necessary to test them on slightly more samples than was done here, in order to make a better assessment of how best to use them in quality control of mussel farming. It is necessary to be aware of the limitations of these rapid tests as they will not completely replace measurements by approved research methods. These tests, on the other hand, could significantly reduce the number of samples sent for approved measurements, as no samples would be sent when the pre-tests show that algae toxins are present and no mussels were allowed to be harvested. The results indicate that Icelandic mussels have an optimal nutrient composition, which is subject to natural seasonal changes. Multivariate analysis (PCA) shows that mussels contain a higher percentage of fat and protein in the spring (May and June), probably because the mussel is preparing to spawn at this time of year. In early autumn, the protein content decreases while the amount of unknown substances increases. At this time of year, spawning is complete, if not complete. The analysis also shows a weak positive correlation between protein and fat, but a strong negative correlation between protein and unknown substances. The concentration of heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) was generally low, but in some cases the concentration of cadmium was higher than permitted by Icelandic and European Union regulations (1 mg / kg). It is therefore important to monitor the concentration of cadmium in Icelandic mussels before they go on the market. The results of fatty acid analysis show that Icelandic mussels contain significant amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA (C20: 5n3) and DHA (C22: 6n3) as well as Palmitoleate (C16: 1n7), all of which are known for their beneficial effects on health. The results of the project show that Icelandic mussels are competitive in terms of nutrient composition and also contain positive bioactive substances. These results will undoubtedly be useful to mussel farmers in marketing presentations and planning regarding the harvesting and sale of mussel products.

In order to enable the Icelandic blue mussel industry to grow, market and sell their product, there is a critical need to perform some fundamental studies. The purpose of this eighteen months long research project was to investigate the quality and value of Icelandic blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) grown at different growing sites of Iceland. A total of 13 samples were collected from blue mussel culture sites around Iceland (Hvalfjörður, Breiðifjörður, Álftafjörður and Eyjafjörður). The Eskifjördur sampling site was excluded from the project due to the lack of market sized blue mussels and resulted in sampling from growing lines of four different culture sites. The mussels were characterized according to location, time of year, weight, length, meat yield and reproductive status. This report summarizes the considerable amounts of data obtained regarding the chemical composition of Icelandic blue mussels, including trace metals (lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, mercury, arsenic, selenium, chrome, nickel and silver), nutrients (moisture, protein, lipid and ash content) and bioactive components (carotenoids and fatty acid profile). In addition, the presence of common algal toxins in blue mussels was investigated and concluded that further work will be needed to optimize the rapid assays tested for measuring algal toxins ie PSP and DSP toxins. The results obtained need to be further verified by using standard addition procedures or with certified reference material. It is important to keep in mind that these rapid tests for PSP and DSP only provide screening results. Further testing with reference analytical methods will be required to confirm the results from these rapid tests before the mussels are harvested and sold on market. The rapid tests are suitable for quality control and decision making regarding whether or not it is safe to harvest the mussel crop or if the mussels should be harvested later after purification in the ocean. The results obtained here indicate that Icelandic blue mussels compose well balanced nutritional and trace element levels. A moderate seasonal variation pattern was observed in all measured nutritional parameters. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed that mussels contained higher proportion of fat and protein during spring (May ‐ June). In the autumn the proportion of protein reduced while the proportion of other unknown substances increased. The PCA analysis also revealed a weak positive correlation between protein and fat and a strong negative correlation between protein and other unknown substances. Heavy metal concentrations were generally low. However, elevated levels of cadmium were measured in mussel samples from certain culture sites, which in some cases exceeded the maximum EU limits (1 mg / kg) for cadmium in bivalve molluscs. The fatty acid profile revealed significant levels of omega ‐ 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as Eicosapentaenoic (EPA, C20: 5n3) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22: 6n3) as well as Palmitoleate (C16: 1n7), all recognized for their health beneficial effects . This fundamental information proves that Icelandic blue mussels is a market competitive product of high quality and will greatly aid in developing the Icelandic mussel industry and in making the best choices considering growing, harvesting, marketing and selling their products.

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Reports

Properties of silver. Impact of location and season / Properties of dulse. Influence of location and season

Published:

06/06/2011

Authors:

Þóra Valsdóttir, Karl Gunnarsson

Supported by:

AVS

contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Properties of silver. Impact of location and season / Properties of dulse. Influence of location and season

This report reports on the results of a study of silver collected from June to October 2010 at two different growth sites of silver, on cliffs and boulders (Bolaklettar) and on islands (Fossárvík). The aim was to obtain reliable information on the effect of location and time of year on the appearance, nutritional value, amount of trace elements and minerals in silver in these places. The effect of season and location was measured on most of the measures analyzed, both composition and properties. The degree of variability varies depending on the factor involved. In some cases it can be significant and therefore important to collect silver in the places and time of year that is most favorable.

Dulse was collected from June to October 2010 at two different locations, rocky shore and at sandbank were the sea was mixed with fresh water. The aim was to collect data on the influence of location and season on the appearance and chemical composition of dulse. Significant differences were found on several attributes. Knowledge of the variability in ie color and protein content assist processors in selecting the most favorable raw material for their product.

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Reports

Quality survey of minced beef in January 2010 / Evaluation of the quality of minced beef in January 2010

Published:

01/03/2010

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Óli Þór Hilmarsson, Guðjón Þorkelsson

Supported by:

National Association of Cow Farmers, Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture, Consumer Association

contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Quality survey of minced beef in January 2010 / Evaluation of the quality of minced beef in January 2010

In mid-January 2010, a survey was conducted on the content and labeling of ground beef. Eight samples were taken from pre-packaged ground beef in shops in the capital area. The labeling of the packaging was examined with regard to the provisions in regulations. Measurements were made of meat species, soy protein, fat, protein and water. Added water and added fiber / hydrocarbons were evaluated by calculations. The main results of the survey are that other types of meat were not mixed with ground beef and soy protein was not detected. According to calculations, water was added in 6 samples out of 8, but for one of the six samples, water was not in the description of ingredients. The packaging of two samples was marked with 12% added water, but the calculations did not indicate much added water. According to the ingredient descriptions, potato fiber is increased to 4 products out of 8. The fibers bind water, but the use of such substances is permitted according to regulations. A comparison with nutrition labeling revealed that fat was above the stated value in three cases and protein was below the marked value in two cases. In some cases, the labeling on the packaging did not meet the requirements of the regulations. Nutrition labeling was missing for two samples. There was a lack of adequate address and subtitle markings. It can be concluded that there is a need to improve the labeling of beef mince packaging. Regulation on meat and meat products no. 331/2005 is unclear on issues such as added water and therefore there is every reason to review the regulation.

A survey on the composition and labeling of minced beef was carried out in January 2010. Eight products of prepacked minced beef were sampled from supermarkets in Reykjavik. The labels were compared to provisions in regulations. The products were analyzed for meat species soy protein, fat, protein, ash and water. Added water and added carbohydrates / fiber were calculated from analytical values. The main results of the survey were that other meat species were not added to the minced beef and soy protein was not detected. According to calculations, water was added to 6 out of 8 samples but for one of the samples water was not listed as an ingredient. In two products added water was less than the 12 percent stated on the label. Potato fibers were according to the labels added to 4 products. This is in accordance with regulations. Fat percentage was higher than declared in three products and protein was less than declared in two products. Labeling did not fulfill regulatory requirements in some cases. Nutrient labeling was lacking in 2 samples. Addresses of producers and subtext in the name of the products were sometimes missing. The Icelandic regulation on meat and meat products No. 331/2005 is unclear on how to estimate and calculate added water and needs to be revised.

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