Reports

Drying and storing of harvested grain - A Review of Methods / Drying and storage of grain

Published:

01/04/2018

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal

Supported by:

Northern Periphery and Arctic Program

contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Drying and storing of harvested grain - A Review of Methods / Drying and storage of grain

In the Arctic, grain is generally cut so moist that it is quickly damaged if it is not dried or soaked in feed. Drying grain is costly and therefore the choice of equipment and energy sources must be carefully considered. The use of geothermal energy is recommended where possible, as geothermal energy should be the cheapest energy source. Mixed solutions can work well, such as geothermal energy and diesel fuel. Agriculture needs to aim for increased sustainability and then geothermal and electricity are good options. Some molds in the field or in storage can form mycotoxins (fungal toxins) in humid and warm conditions. Mycotoxins can be harmful to human and livestock health. The risk of mycotoxin imaging is minimal in cold northern areas. However, it is necessary to monitor the quality of grain in storage and monitor the possible formation of mycotoxins. This report provides an overview of drying methods, energy sources and grain safety and is the basis for advice and research on grain drying.

In the Northern Periphery Region, grains are usually harvested at moisture contents too high for safe storage. Therefore the grain should be dried (or wet processed) as soon as possible. The drying process is expensive and the selection of equipment and fuel should be studied carefully. Where available, the use of geothermal water is recommended. In Iceland, geothermal energy has been found to be the cheapest energy source for grain drying. The use of mixed solutions, eg geothermal energy and diesel, is possible. Grain producers should aim at increased sustainability. Excellent solutions are geothermal energy and electricity. Mold in the field or in stores can produce mycotoxins under humid conditions and quite high temperature. Mycotoxins can harm the health of humans and animals. The existence of mycotoxins in grain grown under the cool conditions of northern regions is likely to be minimal but the situation should be studied and monitored. This report reviews grain drying methods, possible energy sources, safety aspects and is the basis for guidelines and case studies.

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Reports

Cereal Products And Markets In The Northern Periphery Region

Published:

01/06/2014

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Peter Martin, Áslaug Helgadóttir, Hilde Halland, Vanessa Kavanagh, Rólvur Djurhuus

Supported by:

Northern Periphery Program

contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Cereal Products And Markets In The Northern Periphery Region 

Preliminary projects on the cereals market and cereal products from regional cereals were carried out between September 2013 and March 2014. The project was funded by the Northern Periphery Promramme (NPP). Participants came from Iceland, Northern Norway, the Faroe Islands, Orkney and Newfoundland. The aim of the project was to: (1) Build a collaborative network on grain research. (2) Obtain information on grain production and grain utilization in each area and seek new markets and partners. (3) Draft an application for a large grain project. Participants analyzed information on grain production and grain imports. Opportunities for domestic production replaced imports. Grain markets and market developments were examined and the size of markets was assessed. It should be possible to increase domestic production of various cereals such as baked goods, cereals, pasta and alcoholic beverages. The participating countries / regions are at different levels with regard to cereal cultivation and therefore the development of cereal products must take into account the situation.

A preparatory project scoping new markets and products from local cereals in several parts of the Northern Periphery Program (NPP) area, was implemented between September 2013 and March 2014. The project included partners from the following regions: Iceland, N ‐ Norway, Faroe Islands , Orkney and Newfoundland. The project aim was to: (1) Build up a collaborative R&D network on cereals. (2) Review cereal production and utilization in each partner region and identify potential new markets and collaborators. (3) Develop a proposal for a main project. Partners quantified the domestic cereal production and import of cereals. Opportunities were found where imported cereals might be replaced by local products. Cereal markets and food trends were studied and the size of the market for cereal products was estimated. It is possible to increase the use of local cereals for the production of many foods: bakery products, breakfast cerals, pastas and alcoholic beverages. The regions differ with regard to cereal production and development of cereal products should take the situation into account.

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Reports

Íslenskt matkorn - Gæði, inhald og viðhör / Icelandic cereal grain crops for food - Quality, chemical composition and consumer view

Published:

01/01/2012

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Þóra Valsdóttir, Þórdís Anna Kristjánsdóttir, Jón Þór Pétursson, Jónatan Hermannsson

Supported by:

Agricultural Productivity Fund, Agricultural University of Iceland

contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Íslenskt matkorn - Gæði, inhald og viðhör / Icelandic cereal grain crops for food - Quality, chemical composition and consumer view

From 2009 to 2011, Matís and the Agricultural University of Iceland carried out a project on domestic grain for food production. The project was intended to promote the increased use of domestic cereals in food. For this purpose, quality requirements for barley were compiled and material on internal control was compiled for grain farmers' manuals. Chemical measurements of domestic cereals were also carried out, product development from cereals was supported and consumers' attitudes towards domestic barley were examined. Quality requirements for food barley and barley for brewing are set out and are intended to be a reference in business. A general text on the internal control of cereal growers can be localized for individual farms. According to chemical measurements, the starch in the domestic grain was not significantly different from that measured in imported grain. There was a lot of fiber in the domestic grain. The concentration of heavy metals in grain after the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was very low.

A project on the use of Icelandic grain crops for food production was carried out at Matis and the Agricultural University of Iceland in 2009 to 2011. The purpose of the project was to support the increasing use of domestic cereal grain crops for food production. To enable this, quality requirements were developed for barley and a handbook on internal control was written for barley processing at a farm. Proximates and inorganic elements were measured, product development was supported and finally the view of consumers towards Icelandic barley was studied. Quality requirements for barley to be used for food and alcoholic drinks were developed as a frame of reference for businesses. The text for internal control can be adapted for individual farms. The starch in Icelandic grain crops was similar to that of imported crops. The Icelandic grain crops were rich in dietary fiber. The concentrations of heavy metals in the Icelandic crops after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were very low.

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