Reports

Drying and storing of harvested grain - A Review of Methods / Drying and storage of grain

Published:

01/04/2018

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal

Supported by:

Northern Periphery and Arctic Program

contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Drying and storing of harvested grain - A Review of Methods / Drying and storage of grain

In the Arctic, grain is generally cut so moist that it is quickly damaged if it is not dried or soaked in feed. Drying grain is costly and therefore the choice of equipment and energy sources must be carefully considered. The use of geothermal energy is recommended where possible, as geothermal energy should be the cheapest energy source. Mixed solutions can work well, such as geothermal energy and diesel fuel. Agriculture needs to aim for increased sustainability and then geothermal and electricity are good options. Some molds in the field or in storage can form mycotoxins (fungal toxins) in humid and warm conditions. Mycotoxins can be harmful to human and livestock health. The risk of mycotoxin imaging is minimal in cold northern areas. However, it is necessary to monitor the quality of grain in storage and monitor the possible formation of mycotoxins. This report provides an overview of drying methods, energy sources and grain safety and is the basis for advice and research on grain drying.

In the Northern Periphery Region, grains are usually harvested at moisture contents too high for safe storage. Therefore the grain should be dried (or wet processed) as soon as possible. The drying process is expensive and the selection of equipment and fuel should be studied carefully. Where available, the use of geothermal water is recommended. In Iceland, geothermal energy has been found to be the cheapest energy source for grain drying. The use of mixed solutions, eg geothermal energy and diesel, is possible. Grain producers should aim at increased sustainability. Excellent solutions are geothermal energy and electricity. Mold in the field or in stores can produce mycotoxins under humid conditions and quite high temperature. Mycotoxins can harm the health of humans and animals. The existence of mycotoxins in grain grown under the cool conditions of northern regions is likely to be minimal but the situation should be studied and monitored. This report reviews grain drying methods, possible energy sources, safety aspects and is the basis for guidelines and case studies.

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Reports

Value adding technique - Drying of pelagic fish

Published:

13/12/2017

Authors:

Ásbjörn Jónsson, Cyprian Ogombe Odoli, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Value adding technique - Drying of pelagic fish

The aim of the project was to improve the processing process and the quality and safety of dried sardines produced in Kenya. Like looking at new products such as dried capelin from Iceland for possible export to Kenya. The results showed that it was possible to ensure the quality of dried products such as capelin in Iceland. During indoor drying, conditions such as temperature can be controlled, thus preventing protein deformation and fat development. The results also showed that sardines, which were dried outdoors in Kenya at higher temperatures compared to indoor drying, were of poorer quality, as protein deformation occurred along with evolution. On the other hand, market surveys in Kenya showed that a certain group of consumers liked dried capelin from Iceland and were willing to buy the product.

The objective of the project was to improve the process and quality and safety of dried sardines produced in Kenya. As well as introduce new products from Iceland like dried capelins a possible export to Kenya. Results showed that it was possible to control the quality of dried products like capelin in Iceland. By indoor drying, the conditions can be controlled, like temperature and providing denaturation of proteins and oxidation of fat. Results also showed that sardines dried in open air in Kenya with higher temperature compared with indoor drying, had lower quality, were denaturation of proteins and oxidation of fat occurred. Market research indicated that certain social groups of consumers in Kenya liked indoor drying capelin from Iceland, and were willing to by such product.

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Reports

Product development of dried fish skin for human consumption

Published:

01/11/2014

Authors:

Jón Trausti Kárason, Ragnheiður Sveinþórsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS (V 018-12)

Product development of dried fish skin for human consumption

The aim of this project was to promote the increased utilization of raw materials from catfish processing by developing food from low-value or worthless fish meat. A business plan was made for dried / baked cod skins that would be sold in supermarkets for Icelanders and also as food souvenirs for tourists. A recipe and method were developed so that cod skins could be eaten as a snack or snack similar to Icelanders consuming dried fish. Skin taste tests were performed and a consumer survey was conducted. The result was that the final product of the project was an exciting product that would appeal to people, but when consumed, it was rather dry and unexciting. In addition, the shelf life was short.

The aim of this project was to increase the use of raw materials from fish processing plants through the development of low price or worthless fish skin. A business plan was made for dried / baked fish skin to be sold in supermarkets in Iceland but also for fish skin as food souvenirs. A recipe was developed with a method to make it possible to consume dried fish skin as a snack like Icelandic people like to eat dried fish. The taste was tested and also how this product appeals to people. The result of the project was the final product was an exciting but when people tasted it they thougt it was rather dry an uninteresting. Furthermore the shelf life was short for this type of product.

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Reports

Improved processing of dried fish proteins / Improved processing of dry fish proteins

Published:

01/05/2014

Authors:

Margrét Geirsdóttir, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Nr. V 11 038‐11

contact

Margrét Geirsdóttir

Project Manager

mg@matis.is

Improved processing of dried fish proteins / Improved processing of dry fish proteins

The aim of the project was to improve the production process of the start-up company Iceprotein. Iceprotein has worked on the utilization of unused proteins from fish with good results. However, it is necessary to improve the quality of dried products. The purpose of this project was to improve it and thereby ensure the continued development of this important growth point in Skagafjörður.

The aim of the project was to improve the processing of dry fish proteins at the company Iceprotein. Iceprotein is a development company that utilizes cut ‐ offs from fish processing for production of value added protein products. With this project, the aim was to improve their production and thereby strengthening this frontline company in use of fish by‐ products.

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Reports

The effects of pre ‐ salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low ‐ field NMR and physicochemical analysis and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low range NMR and physical property measurements

Published:

31/03/2014

Authors:

María Guðjónsdóttir, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Amidou Traoré

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R45-12)

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

The effects of pre ‐ salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23On MRI, 23Na NMR, low ‐ field NMR and physicochemical analysis / Impact of pre-salinization methods on salt and water distribution of fully salted cod products, analyzed by 1H and 23On MRI, 23Na NMR, low range NMR and physical property measurements

The effect of different pre-salting methods (injection salting with or without phosphate, pickling and brine salting) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted cod fillets (Gadus morhua) was investigated by proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods. In addition, the salt and water content were assessed, as well as water resistance. The results indicated that spraying with salt and phosphate resulted in a more uneven water distribution in the fillets compared to other pre-salting methods. On the other hand, brine-salted fillets had the least homogeneity in salt distribution. Fillets from all sample groups had stains with unsaturated brine, but such stains can increase the risk of microbial damage in the fillets during storage. The effect of the pre-salting methods remains throughout the processing process on both fully salted and dried products. As homogeneous water and salt distribution were not achieved with the pre-salting methods studied, further research into the salting process is needed.

The effect of different pre ‐ salting methods (brine injection with salt with / without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Effects from the pre ‐ salting treatments remained throughout the processing line to both dry salted and dried products. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future.

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Reports

Use of electricity for drying fishmeal / Electric drying of fish meal

Published:

01/01/2013

Authors:

Magnús Valgeir Gíslason, Gunnar Pálsson, Björn Margeirsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R10 084‐10)

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Use of electricity for drying fishmeal / Electric drying of fish meal

The fishmeal industry is an important industry and has been technologically advanced in recent years. High energy is used in the production of products. In order to gain a better grasp of energy efficiency in the process, an energy and mass flow model is set up for the processing of different raw materials and at the same time a better overview of the processing cycle is obtained. The model also helps to make it easier to influence the quality of fishmeal products, through process control. The main goal of the project is to control energy consumption in the production process and especially during drying and to develop electric drying equipment for air dryers. The drying is the last stage of processing in the circuit and the waste dryer from drying is then used later in the circuit. The aim of the project is to use electricity to heat air for drying fishmeal in an efficient way. In this way, it would be possible to achieve the goal of the fisheries sector to utilize only domestic energy in the production of fishmeal, significantly reduce the import of oil for land processing and significantly reduce the formation of footprints. Measurements in the production process were performed for four types of raw materials, to estimate material flows through the factory. Pressure drop over oil heating equipment was measured and is much higher compared to electric heating equipment. The electric heating equipment has proven successful in HB Grandi Vopnafjörður's fishmeal factory, in terms of energy source, energy efficiency, control and maintenance.

The fish meal industry is an important sector and has applied technology in recent years. Fish meal processing is an energy intensive process. For better control of energy utilization in the process energy‐ and mass flow model was set up for processing different raw material, and simultaneously a better overview for the process. The model is a good tool to have influence on the quality of the fish meal products. The main aim of the project was to control energy usage specially for the drying and to develop electric air heating equipment. The drying is the last step in the process and waste heat is utilized on previous stages in the process. The aim of the project is to utilize electricity to heat air for drying fish meal in a cost effective way. By contrast it would be possible to reach the goal for the Icelandic marine sector to utilize exclusively domestic renewable energy for fish meal processing, reduce imports of oil for shore processing and reduce carbon footprint. Measurements in the process were carried out for four kinds of raw material, for evaluation of mass flow through the process. Pressure drop over the oil air heating equipment was measured higher than for an electric air heater. It has turned out that the electric air heater has proved its worth in HB Grandi fish meal factory in Vopnafjordur, in terms of energy source, energy utilization, controlling and maintenance.  

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Reports

Drying of herring fillets

Published:

01/04/2012

Authors:

Vigfús Ásbjörnsson, Guðjón Þorkelsson, Loftur Þórarinsson, Arnljótur Bjarki Bergsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

contact

Guðjón Þorkelsson

Strategy & Stakeholders

gudjon.thorkelsson@matis.is

Drying of herring fillets

The aim of the project is to create added value by fully processing herring products in Iceland by researching the processes of dried herring for human consumption in foreign markets. Dried herring markets in Japan and processing methods were studied. An experiment was conducted with a production process that aims to shorten work processes in a centuries-old Japanese drying method called the Migaki effect on herring (air drying).

The projects goal is to create increased value through processing of herring products in Iceland by analyzing production methods of dried herring for human consumption in foreign markets. Analyzes where performed on dried herring markets in Japan as well as production methods. Experiment was performed that aims to shorten the procedures of an ancient Japanese method of drying herring known as the Migaki method, (air drying).

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Reports

Influence of drying methods on the properties of dulse

Published:

01/06/2011

Authors:

Þóra Valsdóttir, Irek Klonowski

Supported by:

AVS

contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Influence of drying methods on the properties of dulse

Knowledge of the parameters that control the quality and properties of dried silver (Palmaria palmata) is relatively small and little is known. If the utilization of brokers is to be increased and expanded, it is important to study these variables in more detail and document them. This report presents the results of experiments whose main objective was to compare the effects of three different drying methods on the nutritional value and physical properties of dried silver. The drying methods compared were solar drying, oven drying and lyophilization, as well as the effect of the effect on the sun-dried salts was assessed. Comparable changes in nutrients were measured after the drying process. The main difference in terms of drying methods was detected in the amount of vitamin C. There was a noticeable difference in color and texture. Taste properties were not measured but it is believed that there is some difference. Despite the fact that the results gave certain answers, many questions arose when interpreting them. There is therefore a need to acquire more knowledge about the properties of silver and their interaction with different processing factors.

The influence of three different drying methods on selected nutritional and physiochemical properties of dulse were compared; sun drying, oven drying and freeze drying. Similar influence was found on nutritional components. The main difference was found on vitamin C retention. Difference was found as well in color and texture. Flavor characteristics were not analyzed, however some differences are expected. Despite giving some answers, the results raised many questions on their interpretation. There is a need for extended knowledge on the properties of dulse and their interplay with different processing parameters.

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Reports

Processing of dried silver for human consumption. Gæðþættir og gæðaviðmið / Processing of dried dulse for consumption. Quality parameters and requirements.

Published:

01/06/2011

Authors:

Þóra Valsdóttir, Karl Gunnarsson

Supported by:

AVS

contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Processing of dried silver for human consumption. Gæðþættir og gæðaviðmið / Processing of dried dulse for consumption. Quality parameters and requirements.

Many things need to be considered when catching and processing salt and other algae for human consumption. There are different requirements and criteria among processors, buyers and consumers regarding how sales should be and what their desired quality is. This report gathers information on official requirements and known standards for the processing of dried human food for human consumption, which processors and purchasers can use to set product and quality standards for these products. Despite the fact that it is a traditional product, much work remains to be done to gain adequate knowledge of many aspects of the production of dried silver and how to best manage it (such as the storage of fresh ingredients). Guidelines for the processing of dried silver will therefore continue to evolve and change as knowledge advances.

Many things need to be considered when collecting and processing dulse and other seaweed for human consumption. Requirements on how dried dulse should be and their required quality, vary between buyers and consumers. Information was collected on official requirements and known paradigms on the processing of dried dulse. Despite being a traditional product, extended knowledge on the influence of different processing parameters on the properties of dried dulse and how they can be controlled, is needed. Instructions on processing of dried dulse will therefore continue to develop as knowledge on the matter extends.

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Reports

Improved processing of capelin roes

Published:

01/06/2009

Authors:

Margeir Gissurarson, Ragnheiður Sveinþórsdóttir, Þorgrímur Kjartansson, Sigurjón Arason, Guðjón Þorkelsson, Sindri Sigurðsson, Jón Helgason, Björn Brimar Hákonarson

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

contact

Margeir Gissurarson

Project Manager

margeir.gissurarson@matis.is

Improved processing of capelin roes

The processing of capelin roe is largely based on research and development that took place between 1972 and 1982. The weakness of the processing process has been the drying of the roe, where roe is left in pots for up to 20 hours where excess water is allowed to leak. . The drying method disrupts the continuity of processing, is costly and increases the risk of microbial growth in the product. The report discusses the effect of processing factors on the chemical and physical properties of capelin roe, as well as the results of experiments with continuous drying during the processing of capelin roe.

Current processing technique of Capelin roes is based on research and development carried out in 1972 to 1982. The weakness of the current process is the drying procedure where the roes are allowed to stand for up to 20 hours while excess water drains off to desirable level. This drying process disturbs the continuity of the process, is costly and increases the risk of bacteria growth. This report discusses the influence of various processing steps on the physical and chemical composition of the Capelin roes and results from experiments with continuous drying procedures in the processing of Capelin roes.

Report closed until 01.07.2011

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