The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry is growing, and with it, the need to source and optimize sustainable ingredients for aquafeeds. Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens) have received increasing research attention since they are a good source of protein that can efficiently convert a wide range of low-value organic material into valuable resources. This study investigated the impact of three differently processed BSF meals, an untreated BSF diet (BSFC+), a dechitinated BSF diet (BSFC-) and a fermented BSF diet (BSFC+P+) at a 10% inclusion level replacing fish meal in a fish meal control (FM) and a marine and soy protein concentrate based control diet (SPC). Growth performance, gut microbiome and gut histology of salmon fry were assessed. The inclusion and processing methods of BSF showed no adverse impacts on either growth performance or gut histology. However, the gut microbiome of fish was significantly altered by both the protein source and the processing method of the BSF larvae. Fish fed BSFC+, had an increased diversity and evenness of the community compared with conventional protein sources alone, and compared with the other BSF processing methods. However, control diets had a greater presence of lactic acid bacteria and genera associated with faster growing hosts. Fish fed BSF had a high relative abundance of the genus, Exiguobacterium, a chitin-degrading bacterium and in BSFC+P+ fed fish this bacterium completely dominated the community, indicating the presence of dysbiosis. Future studies should determine why Exiguobacterium has dominated the community for the BSFC+P+ diet, and if it provides a digestive function to the host and identifies bacteria that are indicators of optimal host performance and resilience. The results confirmed that BSF is a promising fish meal replacement for salmon, and it demonstrated that BSFC+ has a potential prebiotic impact on the gut microbiome of Atlantic salmon.
Hunting, processing and exporting of live bait king
This report outlines the implementation and main results of a research project that took place in the years 2012-2013. The reason for delaying the publication of the final report of the project is that in 2013 the owner of the project, Sægarpur ehf. bankrupt. The project was therefore not completed and has been largely dormant since 2013. However, since most of the project had been completed before Sægarpur went bankrupt, the authors consider it right and obligatory to publicly report here what took place in the project and what the main results are. its were. The aim of the project was to develop fishing, processing, storage and transport of live bait kingfishers, as well as to explore the market for such products. Experiments were carried out with different catch treatments on board a fishing vessel and storage or transport, which gave indications that with the right handling and finishing it would be possible to keep the bait king alive for approx. week. the aim had been to ensure at least 10 days of survival in order for it to be considered realistic to intend to export a live bait king. However, the results of the experiments showed that when more than a week had passed since the hunt, survival decreased rapidly and the meat had become unfit for consumption on the tenth day. It is possible that these processes could be better developed to ensure better survival, but based on these results, the shelf life is not long enough to be considered a viable option at this time. Attempts were also made to keep the bait king alive in a cycle system in a fish tank. The aim of these experiments was to investigate whether it was possible to store live bait king in a "warehouse" for processing on land. A circuit system was equipped with filter equipment that was sufficient to keep the bait king alive for a week. The authors believe that it would be possible to extend the time with more powerful filtering equipment. These results must be considered positive and conducive to the fact that they could be taken up by companies that process bait king. Markets for live bait king were also examined, but it can be said that this survey has finally brought home the truth that the export of live bait king is not a viable option. It is simply a better option to win the bait king here at home. If market conditions change, however, it is not ruled out that processes can be improved to make such exports possible.
This report contains an overview of the progress and main results in a research project that ran in 2012-2013. The reason for the delay in publication of this final report is that the project owner was declared bankrupt in 2013 and the project has been dormant since then. The authors of the report did however feel obligated to make public the progress and main results that were achieved before the owner went out of business. The aim of the project was to develop best practice for catching, handling, packaging, storage and transport of live whelk; as well as studying the markets for live whelk. Experiments were made with different onboard handling, storage and transport of live whelk. These experiments indicated that it should be possible to keep the whelk alive for one week after capture, with correct handling. The goal had however been to ensure that the whelk could be kept alive for at least ten days. Experiments were also made where it was attempted to keep whelk alive in a regular plastic fish-tub equipped with a circulation system. The objective with this was to examine if whelk could be stored, in a relatively simple and inexpensive manner, in-stock for land-based processing. The results indicate that such a system could be used to keep a living inventory of whelk for the processing. The authors of this report are confident that the timeframe could be extended by fitting the system with more efficient filtration equipment. The markets for live whelk were briefly analyzed and the results of that analyzes indicate that export of live whelk from Iceland is not economically feasible or practical. There is simply too little premium paid for live whelk at the moment.
Catching, processing and marketing of Neptune whelk
Kingfisher (Neptunea despecta) is a kingfisher that resembles a kingfisher, but is somewhat larger and usually stays at a deeper depth. It is believed that the kingfisher is in large quantities in many parts of the country and that the stock can withstand considerable fishing. The MRI has recorded information about the king of the sea from lobster expeditions for many years, which indicates considerable density in many parts of the country. In 2012, Sægarpur ehf. in Grundarfjörður a grant from the AVS research fund in the Fisheries sector to investigate the possibilities of fishing, processing and exporting kingfishers. This was a so-called small project or preliminary project. The project was divided into work components that involved distribution mapping and experimental fishing, processing experiments, chemical measurements and market research. On the other hand, Sægarpur ehf. became bankrupt during the project period and it can be said that the project has to some extent resurfaced as a result. However, since a large part of the project was completed when Sægarpur went bankrupt, the authors now consider it right and obligatory to publicly report on the progress and main results of the project. In addition, the experiments carried out by the company Royal Iceland hf. has been involved in connection with fishing and processing of sea king, but Royal Iceland bought the assets of Sægarp's bankruptcy estate in 2014 and has since then, among other things, fished and processed bait king. The main results of the mapping of distribution and experimental fishing were rather limited, as information on kingfishers as by-catch in other fisheries is scarce and the species has received little attention in the research of the Marine Research Institute. The experimental expedition led by the project also yielded very little results. The results of processing experiments showed that it is possible to remove the king of the sea's toxic glands and that it is possible to measure whether tetramine (the poison) is found in products, but this does require a considerable cost. The results of a basic market survey indicate that it is possible to sell kingfisher products, especially in well-paying markets in Asia. But since the king of the ocean is not known in Asian markets and there is always a risk of tetramine poisoning, marketing of the products is very difficult. It is clear that there is a need for significantly more research in the entire value chain before it is possible to state whether and how much opportunity there is in fishing and processing kingfishers in this country.
Neptune whelk (Neptunea despecta) is a gastropod that looks a lot like the common whelk, but is though considerably larger and is usually found in deeper water. Neptune whelk is believed to be in significant volume in Icelandic waters, but concreate knowledge on stock size and distribution is however lacking. In 2012 the company Sægarpur ltd., Which was during that time catching, processing and exporting common whelk, received funding from AVS research fund to do some initial investigation on the applicability of catching, processing and marketing Neptune whelk. Sægarpur did however run into bankruptcy before the project ended. The project has therefore been somewhat dormant since 2013. The company Royal Iceland ltd. did though buy the bankrupt estate of Sægarpur and has to a point continued with exploring opportunities in catching and processing Neptune whelk. The authors of this report do now want to make public the progress and main results of the project, even though the project owner (Sægarpur) is no longer in operation. The project was broken into three parts ie mapping of distribution, processing experiments and initial market research. The main results of the mapping exercise showed that very little knowledge is available on distribution of Neptune whelk in Icelandic waters and data on Neptune whelk by-catches is almost noneexistent. The Marine Research Institute has as well awarded very little attention to the species in its research. The project organized a research cruse, where a fishing vessel operating a sea cucumber dredge tried fishing for Neptune whelk in 29 different locations; but with very little success. The results of the processing experiments showed that it is possible to remove the poison glands from the Neptune whelk, bot mechanically and manually. It also showed that the products can be measured for the presence of tetramine (poison). Both the processing and the measurements do however require significant efforts and cost. The initial marketing research indicated that there are likely markets for Neptune whelk products. These markets are primarily in Asia and some of them are high-paying markets. The efforts of Royal Iceland in marketing the Neptune whelk have though shown that this is a difficult product to market, especially because the Neptune whelk is unknown on the Asian markets and there is always a possibility of a tetramine poisoning. It is clear that much more research is necessary throughout the entire value chain before it is possible to say with level of certainty if and how much opportunities are in catching and processing of Neptune whelk in Iceland.
Quality factors in processing and processing of belt algae (Saccharina latissima)
This report describes the collection of information on methods for assessing the main quality aspects of raw materials, the processing and processing of gillnets and their control for human consumption. Sampling and measurements of raw materials and processed products were then carried out to test and evaluate the relevant methods. The report is part of the Belt Algae Food Development project, which aims to acquire knowledge and skills in the handling and processing of algae and to demonstrate the potential for value creation from it.
Methods were evaluated for measuring the main quality indicators of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) as raw material for food applications.
New technology for the Nordic fishing fleet - Proceedings from a workshop on fishing gear and effective catch handling held in Reykjavik October 1st and 2nd 2013
This report presents the presentations held at the Nordic workshop on fishing gear and catch management, held in Reykjavík in October 2013. The report also contains some of the main findings of the meeting and the participants' suggestions for possible follow-up. The presentations published in the report, together with recordings of all presentations and various other topics related to the topic, can be accessed on the website www.fishinggearnetwork.net, which will be maintained at least until the end of 2015.
In this report are published presentations given at a Nordic workshop held in Reykjavik on various aspects of research and development on fishing gear and effective catch handling. The report also accounts for the main outputs from the workshop in regards to possible follow ‐ ups. All of the proceedings, including the content of this report and video recordings of all presentations are available at the project's web ‐ page www.fishinggearnetwork.net which will be maintained at least until the end of year 2015.
Short Training Course on Quality Assurance and Processing in the Artisanal Pelagic Fisheries Sector Tanzania June 18th to 29th 2012 / Practical course in quality assurance and processing for pelagic coastal fishing areas in Tanzania June 18-29, 2012
Matís held two practical courses in Tanzania for the United Nations University (UNU-FTP), in collaboration with the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development Tanzania. Quality loss from fishing and processing in Tanzania is estimated at around 60% of landed catch. The main cause of the loss is inadequate handling and primitive production methods of pelagic fish (Dagaa). The content of the courses held in Mwanza and Kigoma dealt with improved safety and processing of marine products with an emphasis on pelagic fishing. In each course the number of participants was around 30.
Two short training courses were conducted in Tanzania by Matis for the United Nations University - Fisheries Training Program (UNU-FTP) in co-operation with the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development in Tanzania. Post-harvest losses in fisheries in Tanzania are estimated to be around 60% of the total catch. These losses are mainly due to improper handling and poor processing techniques of the pelagic species (Dagaa). The courses held in Mwanza and Kigoma, covered the topics of fish safety and processing with emphasis on pelagic fisheries. About 30 persons participated in the course at each location.
Full processing of mackerel
The main objective of the project was to develop valuable products for human consumption from mackerel caught by pelagic vessels as well as to assess the profitability of such processing. Mackerel products for human consumption are much more valuable than products from fishmeal processing and there are great interests in processing for human consumption, such as canning and hot smoking. Experiments were carried out with the processing of mackerel in canning. Mackerel was boiled in tomato puree and smoked and boiled in oil. There was also an experiment with hot smoking of mackerel. The efficiency of such processing was done together with a sensitivity analysis, based on a yield of 13%. Positive results of experiments with mackerel processing in canning and hot smoking, together with a profitability assessment of such processing, indicated that such processing was profitable in the long run.
The main objective of this project was to develop valuable products from mackerel for human consumption together with evaluation of profitability of such processing. Mackerel products for human consumption are more valuable than products from oil and meal processing. Trials were done on processing mackerel products from canning in oil and tomato puree, and hotsmoking. Profitability of such process was evaluated with IRR (internal rate of return) of 13%. Favorable results of the project indicated that processing of canned and smoked products could be profitable in the long ‐ term.
Preliminary study on the processing and marketing of Icelandic crabs / Crab; fishing, processing and marketing. Preliminary study
The project is a preliminary project on experimental fishing and processing of crabs in the Southwest. Experimental fishing resulted in increased knowledge / experience of crab fishing off the coast of Iceland. The crabs that were caught were rock crab, bow crab and crayfish. Work was done on proposals for procedures and quality rules / guidelines for crab fishing in Iceland. Efficacy procedures for the killing of crabs were developed. Products from other processing processes were also introduced, such as whole frozen, boiled and frozen whole, also clustered and frozen or divided, boiled and frozen. Experimental marketing of crabs in Iceland was successful and better than expected at the beginning of the project.
This was a preliminary study on catching and processing of crab in Southwest Iceland. Knowledge and experience on how, where and when to catch crab was gained. The crabs that were caught were Atlantic rock crab, common shore crab and common spider crab. The first recommendations on procedures and quality guidelines for catching crab were issued. Processes for killing crab were adapted from other countries and the products were developed eg frozen whole crab, boiled and frozen whole crab, portioned (cluster) and frozen or portioned, boiled and frozen. The preliminary marketing of the crabs in Iceland was more successful than expected.
Fishing, grading, processing and marketing of mackerel caught by pelagic vessels / Fishing, grading, processing and marketing of mackerel caught by pelagic vessels
In 2005, mackerel catches were first registered in Icelandic jurisdiction, although Icelandic vessels did not start fishing for mackerel systematically until 2007, mackerel fishing increased rapidly, but in 2009 fishing rights for mackerel were first limited. During these years, the catch has gone from 232 tonnes to 121 thousand tonnes. Initially, all the catch went to smelting, but in 2010 Icelanders froze 60% of the catch for human consumption. This report discusses fishing and processing of mackerel, equipment needed for mackerel processing for human consumption, handling of catch, measurements of mackerel caught in Icelandic jurisdiction and the market. In the project, samples were collected and measured in shape, gender and fat content. In the summer, mackerel enter Icelandic jurisdiction and are caught with herring, but both species are caught in trawls. When mackerel is processed for human consumption, it is decapitated and gutted, but in order to do so, in addition to the traditional processing line, so-called suction is needed, which sucks the slag from inside the mackerel. Mackerel also needs a longer freezing time than herring due to its cylindrical shape. The mackerel that enters Icelandic waters is often 35-40 cm long and weighs between 300 and 600 g. The main markets for summer-caught mackerel caught in Iceland are in Eastern Europe, where it continues to be processed into more valuable products.
In the year 2005 Icelanders first caught mackerel in Icelandic fishing grounds, but it was not until 2007 that Icelandic vessels began to catch mackerel by purpose. The fishing of mackerel increased fast but in 2009 the government put a limit on the catching. In these years the catch has increased from 232 tons to 121,000 tons. At first, a meal was made from all the catch, but in 2010 60% of the catch was frozen for human consumption. The subject of this report is the fishing and processing of mackerel, mechanisms that are needed to process the mackerel for human consumption, handling of the catch, measurement of mackerels and markets. For this project samples were collected and geometrician measurements performed by qualified staff. In the summer mackerel can be caught in Icelandic fishing grounds together with herring, it´s caught in pelagic trawl. When mackerel are processed for human consumption it´s headed and gutted, to do that a suck has to be used to suck the guts out. Mackerel also need longer time in the freezing device because of their cylindrical shape. The mackerel caught here are often 35‐40 cm long and 300‐600 g of weight. The main markets for mackerel caught during the summer are in Eastern Europe where it's processed into more valuable products.
Optimized Chilling Protocols for Fresh Fish
Guidelines for cooling fresh fish describe the most effective cooling methods at all stages of the cooling chain, with an emphasis on white fish. It describes how to best cool and maintain temperatures in order to maximize product quality and safety and reduce costs and energy consumption. The report contains background information for instructions in the information source Kæligátt on Matís' website, which is presented in a user-friendly way in Icelandic www.kaeligatt.is and English www.chillfish.net. The guidelines are intended for fishermen, manufacturers, carriers and other members of the value chain. The guidelines are based on research that has been carried out within research projects such as Chill ‐ on, Simulation of cooling processes and Cooling improvement. The main chapters deal with refrigeration on board, during processing, during packing, transport and storage of fish.
The overall aim of the optimized chilling protocols is to describe the most effective chilling methods for any stage in the food supply chain with emphasis on whitefish. This comprises optimization of the whole chain for lowering and maintaining low temperature with the aim of maximizing quality and safety of the products and minimizing costs and energy use. This report is the background for the protocols and guidelines published with open access at Matís website in Icelandic and English in a user ‐ friendly way: www.chillfish.net. These are protocols to follow aimed at the use of fishermen, manufacturers, transporters and other stakeholders in the fisheries chain. The information is divided into subchapters of different links in the chain. How to chill fish on ‐ board, during processing, packaging, transport and storage are the main chapters.