Reports

Analysis of damage to fresh fish products / Comparison of transport and packaging methods for fresh fish products - storage life study

Published:

13/07/2016

Authors:

Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Gunnar Þórðarson, Ásgeir Jónsson, Hrund Ólafsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Björn Margeirsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R 034‐14)

contact

Gunnar Þórðarson

Regional Manager

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

Analysis of damage processes in fresh fish transport / Comparison of transport and packaging methods for fresh fish products - storage life study

The aim of the project "Best fresh fish transport" was to improve the handling of fresh fish products in container transport and thereby increase their shelf life and the possibility of further transport by sea from Iceland, but there are significant savings compared to transport by air. This report deals with the analysis of the damage processes that take place during the storage and transport of fresh fish products. A comparison was made of transport in foam plastic boxes and in ice scrapers in pots at different temperatures. Different embodiments of both packaging solutions were compared and assessment factors included temperature, total number of microorganisms, amount of damaged microorganisms, water resistance, amount of erratic base and sensory assessment properties. In general, there was relatively little difference between experimental groups during storage. Differences were found between groups in individual sensory evaluation factors, but this difference was not comparable between days and is therefore probably due to the interaction between heterogeneous raw material and too few evaluated samples. The freshness time of all groups was seven to eight days and the shelf life was about 10 days. The packaging solutions studied in the experiment, as well as the storage temperature, had little effect on the spoilage processes of the cod products. The variability was primarily due to the storage time.

The aim of the project “Optimization of fresh fish transport” was to improve the handling of fresh fish products during sea freight and increase the shelf life and the possibility of further maritime transport from Iceland, involving significant savings relative to the air freight. The present report covers analysis of the deterioration processes occurring during storage and transportation of fresh whitefish products. Comparison was done between transportation in expanded polystyrene boxes and in slurry ice in tubs at different ambient temperature. Different versions of both packaging solutions were compared with regard to temperature, total viable count, amount of spoilage bacteria, water holding capacity, total volatile nitrogen bases (TVB ‐ N) and sensory properties. There were in general relatively small differences between experimental groups during the storage period. Some difference was observed between groups with regard to few sensory attributes, but the difference was not comparable between days which was likely due to heterogeneous material and too small sampling size. The freshness period of all experimental groups was seven to eight days and the shelf life around 10 days. The packaging solutions explored in the present study, as well as storage temperature, had generally little effect on the deterioration processes occurring in the fresh cod product. The observed variation was primarily attributed to the storage time.

Report closed until 01.08.2018

View report

Reports

Economic analysis of fresh fish transportation

Published:

13/07/2016

Authors:

Ásgeir Jónsson, Björn Margeirsson, Sigurjón Arason, Ögmundur Knútsson, Magnea G. Karlsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R 034‐14)

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Economic analysis of fresh fish transportation

The aim of the project Optimization of fresh fish transport is to improve the handling of fresh fish products in container transport and thereby increase their shelf life and the possibility of further transport by sea from Iceland. In work component 4, the development of fresh fish transport from Iceland is analyzed according to the mode of transport and the main market areas for fresh fillets and pieces. An economic analysis of the use of pots and foam boxes is carried out with regard to packaging and transport costs. Exports of fresh whitefish fillets and pieces have increased rapidly over the past decade. Year after year, the amount of fresh fillets and chunks imported from Iceland by sea increases. A product that was almost exclusively transported by air a decade ago is now almost equally transported by ship. The results show that the amount of fresh fillets and pieces transported by ship from Iceland almost increased sixfold from 2004 to 2014. In 2013 and 2014, about 90% of the fresh fillets and pieces transported by ship were transported to two markets; Britain and France. The results of a cost analysis show that it is considerably cheaper to pack a product in a pot than a foam box. Transport costs are also lower in most cases when comparing pots with foam boxes. It is more than half as low when comparing the cost of transporting a container of pots on the one hand and 3 kg of foam boxes on the other. However, there are some limiting factors in the use of pots. All things being equal, pots are not likely to replace a foam box except in part due to practical aspects of product distribution. In some cases, however, transport in pots could be very suitable.

The aim of the project Optimization of fresh fish transport is to improve handling of sea transported fresh fish products, thereby improving their quality and increasing the possibility of sea transport from Iceland. The aim of work package no. 4 is to analyze main markets and the development of fresh fish transport from Iceland. Also compare cost of traditional packaging in expanded polystyrene (EPS) boxes to pack the product in tubs containing slurry ice. Export of fresh white fish fillets and loins from Iceland has increased rapidly over the last decade. More and more fillets and loins are transported with ships. What used to be an exclusive air freight business is now almost equal (air vs. sea). The results show that the volume of fillets and loins transported with ships from Iceland nearly six folded from 2004 to 2014. In 2013 and 2014 almost 90% of the export went to two markets; Britain and France. Results show that cost of packing product in tubs is significantly lower than using EPS boxes. Transportation cost was also lower in most cases when using tubs than EPS, as much as half of the cost when compared to the smallest EPS box (3 kg) in a full container. Some factors limit the practicality of using tubs rather than EPS. It is unlikely that tubs will replace boxes unless introducing matching distribution options. In some cases using tubs can be both practical and very cost efficient.

View report

Reports

Full processing of mackerel

Published:

01/10/2011

Authors:

Ásbjörn Jónsson, Ragnheiður Sveinþórsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

Full processing of mackerel

The main objective of the project was to develop valuable products for human consumption from mackerel caught by pelagic vessels as well as to assess the profitability of such processing. Mackerel products for human consumption are much more valuable than products from fishmeal processing and there are great interests in processing for human consumption, such as canning and hot smoking. Experiments were carried out with the processing of mackerel in canning. Mackerel was boiled in tomato puree and smoked and boiled in oil. There was also an experiment with hot smoking of mackerel. The efficiency of such processing was done together with a sensitivity analysis, based on a yield of 13%. Positive results of experiments with mackerel processing in canning and hot smoking, together with a profitability assessment of such processing, indicated that such processing was profitable in the long run.

The main objective of this project was to develop valuable products from mackerel for human consumption together with evaluation of profitability of such processing. Mackerel products for human consumption are more valuable than products from oil and meal processing. Trials were done on processing mackerel products from canning in oil and tomato puree, and hotsmoking. Profitability of such process was evaluated with IRR (internal rate of return) of 13%. Favorable results of the project indicated that processing of canned and smoked products could be profitable in the long ‐ term.

View report

Reports

Increased value of pelagic species - FINAL REPORT / Increased value of pelagic species

Published:

01/05/2011

Authors:

Lárus Þorvaldsson, Björn Margeirsson, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Sindri Sigurðsson (SVN), Ásgeir Gunnarsson (SÞ), Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Increased value of pelagic species - FINAL REPORT / Increased value of pelagic species

The main objective of the project Increasing the value of pelagic fish - improved refrigeration technology, which began in June 2008, was to lay the foundations for a new method of cooling and storing pelagic fish on board seiners. The result of improved cooling is that a higher proportion of the catch is useful for human consumption. Partners in the project were Matís, Síldarvinnslan (SVN) and Skinney Þinganes (UN). This report describes the main results and products of the project. Examples of products are heat transfer models of pelagic catches in ships and storage tanks on land and the integration of heat transfer models and quality forecast models, which make it possible to predict the quality of raw materials based on environmental temperature history. Heat distribution in pelagic vessel loads with different versions of cooling systems was mapped and storage temperatures were linked to quality measurements made during landing. From temperature and quality measurements it is clear that the frequency of defects in landed catch increases with increasing storage temperature. The main advantage of the MCS (Mixed Cooling System) cooling system, which combines CSW (Chilled Sea Water) and RSW (Refrigerated Sea Water) cooling systems, is that the system can reduce the inevitable temperature rise that occurs in a pre-cooled vessel following the pumping of catch in lestina. During the project, the Icelandic mackerel fishery was the largest and it can be stated that the results of the project have been used very well to improve the results of food processing of mackerel in this country and thus increase the product prices of a valuable species.  

The main aim of the research project Increased value of pelagic species - improved chilling methods, which was initiated in June 2008, was to develop a new method for chilling and storing pelagic species on board purse seiners resulting in more valuable products. This report describes the main results and products of the project. Examples include heat transfer models of pelagic fish stored in a ship hold and a storage tank onshore and coupling of the heat transfer models and quality forecasting models, which makes it possible to predict spoilage of pelagic species as a function of ambient temperature history. Temperature distributions in ship holds with different cooling systems were mapped and storage temperature related to quality measurements conducted during landing. The fault ratio of landed raw material clearly increased, indicating lower quality, with higher storage temperature. The main advantage of a mixed cooling system (MCS), which combines RSW and CSW systems, compared to using only RSW is a lower temperature increase in a precooled ship hold caused by loading the catch in the hold. During the project, the emphasis on mackerel fishing increased significantly around Iceland. It can be stated that the results of this project have been widely exploited in order to improve the yield of the mackerel and thereby increase the profitability of that valuable species.

View report

Reports

Optimized Chilling Protocols for Fresh Fish

Published:

01/12/2010

Authors:

Björn Margeirsson, Hélène L. Lauzon, Lárus Þorvaldsson, Sveinn Víkingur Árnason, Sigurjón Arason, Kristín Líf Valtýsdóttir, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Center for Research, University of Iceland Research Fund and EU (contract FP6-016333-2)

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Optimized Chilling Protocols for Fresh Fish

Guidelines for cooling fresh fish describe the most effective cooling methods at all stages of the cooling chain, with an emphasis on white fish. It describes how to best cool and maintain temperatures in order to maximize product quality and safety and reduce costs and energy consumption. The report contains background information for instructions in the information source Kæligátt on Matís' website, which is presented in a user-friendly way in Icelandic www.kaeligatt.is and English www.chillfish.net. The guidelines are intended for fishermen, manufacturers, carriers and other members of the value chain. The guidelines are based on research that has been carried out within research projects such as Chill ‐ on, Simulation of cooling processes and Cooling improvement. The main chapters deal with refrigeration on board, during processing, during packing, transport and storage of fish.

The overall aim of the optimized chilling protocols is to describe the most effective chilling methods for any stage in the food supply chain with emphasis on whitefish. This comprises optimization of the whole chain for lowering and maintaining low temperature with the aim of maximizing quality and safety of the products and minimizing costs and energy use. This report is the background for the protocols and guidelines published with open access at Matís website in Icelandic and English in a user ‐ friendly way: www.chillfish.net. These are protocols to follow aimed at the use of fishermen, manufacturers, transporters and other stakeholders in the fisheries chain. The information is divided into subchapters of different links in the chain. How to chill fish on ‐ board, during processing, packaging, transport and storage are the main chapters.

View report

Reports

Overview on fish quality research - Impact of fish handling, processing, storage and logistics on fish quality deterioration

Published:

01/11/2010

Authors:

Hélène L. Lauzon, Björn Margeirsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, María Guðjónsdóttir, Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Emilia Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, Technology Development Fund and EU IP Chill-on (contract FP6-016333-2)

contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Overview on fish quality research - Impact of fish handling, processing, storage and logistics on fish quality deterioration

The short shelf life of fish is a limiting factor in the export of fresh fish products from Iceland. The initial quality of raw materials, methods of cooling, processing, packaging and conditions during storage and transport are discussed, as well as the effects of all these factors on the freshness and shelf life of fish products. Temperature control is very important to maintain the quality of the fish. Pre-processed fillets have been used to lower the pre-packing temperature. However, care must be taken that the pre-cooling technology does not endanger the microbial condition of the product and thus causes it to be damaged earlier after packaging. The synergistic effects of supercooling and aerated packaging (MAP) can significantly extend the freshness period and shelf life of fish products. Furthermore, packaging methods are examined, including new, more environmentally friendly packaging. Finally, the effect of transport routes of fresh fish products on their final quality to consumers in the market is discussed. This report provides an overview of the research of the Fisheries Research Institute and Matís ohf over the past three decades on the subject. Furthermore, it is discussed how these results can benefit the fishing industry.

The limited shelf life of fresh fish products is a large hurdle for the export of fresh products from Iceland. The influence of raw material quality, cooling methods, processing, packaging and storage conditions on freshness and shelf life extension is discussed. Temperature control is important to maintain fish quality. Pre-cooling of fillets in process has been used to lower the temperature prior to packaging. However, the cooling technique applied should not compromise the microbiological quality of the product and render it vulnerable to faster spoilage postpackaging. Synergism of combined superchilling and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) can lead to a considerable extension of the freshness period and shelf life of fish products. Further, alternative and environmentally-friendly packaging methods are considered. Finally, the impact of transportation mode of fresh fish products on their resulting quality is examined. This report provides an overview of the findings on fish research carried out at Matís (Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories) over the last three decades and further discusses their practicality for the fish processing industry.

View report

Reports

Comparison of cooling techniques - Their efficiency during cooling their effect on microbial and chemical spoilage indicators

Published:

01/10/2010

Authors:

Lárus Þorvaldsson, Hélène L. Lauzon, Björn Margeirsson, Emilía Martinsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

EU (contract FP6‐016333‐2) Chill ‐ on

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Comparison of cooling techniques - Their efficiency during cooling their effect on microbial and chemical spoilage indicators

The aim of the experiments was to investigate the effects of different types of ice during cooling and storage of whole, gutted fish on heat and damage processes. Three types of ice were used: traditional crushed plate ice ("flake ice") (referred to as PI here) as well as two types of ice scrapers (liquid ice) produced in specially designed ice scrapers (referred to as LIA and LIB here) with different salt and ice ratios. The results of temperature measurements showed much faster cooling with an ice scraper than conventional flake ice. Then cooling down proved to be somewhat faster with one type of ice scraper (LIB) than the other (LIA) because the temperature of haddock cooled in LIB went from 7.5 ° C down to 0 ° C in 20 - 30 min compared to about 55 - 60 min in LIA. The corresponding time for traditional flake ice was about 260 min. The difference in cooling time in the LIA and LIB can be partly explained by the 10% heavier fish in the LIA group. Cooling whole haddock from 10 ° C and 20 ° C gave similar results as cooling it from 7.5 ° C. Cooling time from 10 ° C to 4 ° C was 24 min for the LIB group and 36 min for the LIA group. The comparable cooling time from 20 ° C to 4 ° C was 46 min for LIB compared to 55 min for LIA. The results of microbiological measurements by cultivable methods showed that little growth of specialized pests (SSÖ) on haddock skin occurred early in the storage period, regardless of the cooling method. With further storage, microbial growth was similar between the cooling groups with an ice layer at the top of the vessel. Comparable microbial growth was observed in the flesh until on day 8, a significantly higher number of Photobacterium phosphoreum and H2S-producing bacteria were found in LIB-chilled fish. It is interesting to note that the different temperature profiles measured among the refrigeration groups did not reflect the microbial growth that took place. In fact, SSÖ's damage capacity did not appear to be less in the coldest conditions during the storage period, as significantly higher levels of TVB-N and TMA were measured in fish treated with ice scraping compared to conventional ice storage. It is possible that the conditions created by these waterlogged and salted conditions when using ice scrapers are undesirable and lead to a faster damage process than occurs under icy conditions.

The aim of study was to investigate the effects of different ice media during cooling and storage of whole, gutted whitefish on temperature control and spoilage indicators. The thermodynamic, microbial and chemical properties of whole, gutted haddock were examined with respect to the cooling medium in which it was stored. Three basic types of cooling medium were used: traditional crushed plate ice (PI + PI) and two types of commercially available liquid (slurry) ice, here denoted as LIA and LIB. The ice types were furthermore divided into five groups with different salinity and ice concentration. Microbiological analysis by cultivation methods revealed that growth of some specific spoilage organisms (SSO) on fish skin was delayed at early storage, independently of the cooling methods. With further storage, little or no difference in counts was seen among traditionally iced fish and those cooled in liquid ice for 2 h before draining and top layer icing. Even less difference was observed in the flesh microbiota developing until significant growth increase in Photobacterium phosphoreum and H2S ‐ producing bacteria was seen on day 8 in LIB cooled fish. Interestingly the differences obtained in the temperature profiles of fish cooled differently were not supported by different bacterial growth behavior. In fact, SSO spoilage potential was not reduced in the coolest treatments as time progressed, as demonstrated on day 8 by the significantly higher TVB ‐ N and TMA content of fish cooled in liquid ice compared to traditional icing. Conditions created by liquid ice environment (salt uptake of flesh) may have been unfavorable, causing an even faster fish deterioration process with increasing storage time compared to traditional ice storage. Evaluation of the thermodynamic properties showed that LIB gave slightly faster cooling than LIA. For haddock stored in LIB the flesh reached 0 ° C in 20‐30 min, but it took 57 min in LIA and around 260 min in crushed plate ice (PI). The difference in the cooling rate of LIA and LIB might, apart from the physical properties of the ice, be partially explained by the fish weight, being on average 10% more in the LIA group. The additional cooling rate experiments where whole, gutted haddock was cooled down from 20 ° C and 10 ° C gave similar results. When cooled down from 20 ° C the haddock reached 4 ° C in 46 min when chilled in LIB while the same process in LIA required 55 min. Similar difference was seen when the material was cooled down from 10 ° C, where fish chilled in LIB reached 4 ° C in 24 min and fish chilled in LIA reached 4 ° C in 36 min.

View report

Reports

Processing in line boats / Processing in line boats

Published:

01/06/2009

Authors:

Róbert Hafsteinsson, Albert Högnason, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS, Technology Development Fund

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Processing in line boats / Processing in line boats

This project is a collaborative project of the following companies; Matís, Brim, Samherji, Vísir and 3X Technology. The aim of the project is to improve the processing processes of longline vessels with a view to reducing the cost of processing, increasing work efficiency and product quality. The project includes the results of a voyage with the icefish trawler Stefni ÍS, where the goal was to perform different refrigeration and bleeding experiments on cod and thus find out what is the best processing method / processing treatment with regard to the quality of the product. The processing deck on longliners will be designed differently, but the same units are used to maximize the quality of the catch. Several groups were taken who received different processing treatments on board. The groups then went to the processing of Hraðfrystihús Gunnvarar where they underwent a sensory evaluation test in the color and release of the fillets. The main results of the project showed that bleeding in the sea, preferably with a lot of water change, before cooling, gives a better color - the meat quality of the wreck. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of loss, as they all had similar results.

This project is a collaboration work between; Matis, Brim, Samherji, Vísir and 3X Technology. The object of this project is to improve the process in line boats, by reducing production costs, improve working conditions and product quality. This project includes payoff from voyage with the ice-fresh trawler Stefnir ÍS, where the objective was to carry out difference bleeding and cooling methods on cod and find out which methods is efficient regards to the quality of the product. The processing deck in line boats will be implement difference, but same unitary will be used to increase the quality of the catch. The primary conclusion from the research on board Stefnir, is that bleeding in sea before cooling the fish, gives better results regard to the color of the fillet. The research also shows that there was not a significant difference between groups regards to results in looseness of the fillet.

View report
en_GBEnglish