Reports

Roadmap for the value chain of cod, salmon and char

Published:

05/06/2020

Authors:

Marvin Ingi Einarsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment of Finland

Roadmap for the value chain of cod, salmon and char

The objective of this work is to discuss Iceland's fishing and fish farming industries and approach the challenges there are and report on what has been done to meet those challenges. The main focus of this work will be on creating roadmaps for the supply chain of cod and the supply chain of salmon and arctic char and identify the obstacles these industries have faced. From fishing / farming to the consumer. This roadmap will show how and where increased value can be made using real examples from Iceland, shed light on critical factors affecting the quality and highlight the obstacles hindering further growth and development.

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Reports

Styrene migration from expanded polystyrene boxes into fresh cod and redfish at chilled and superchilled temperatures

Published:

01/12/2017

Authors:

Erwan Queguiner, Björn Margeirsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

RPC Tempra

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Styrene migration from expanded polystyrene boxes into fresh cod and redfish at chilled and superchilled temperatures

The aim of the experiment was to investigate the possible flow of styrene from foam plastic boxes to fresh cod and redfish fillets, which are stored at typical temperatures during sea transport of fresh fillets from Iceland to Europe or America. US buyers want fish fillets to be packed in plastic bags before packing in a foam box due to possible styrene contamination from foam to fish. Therefore, in this project, styrene was measured in fish, which had been stored without plastic bags in foam boxes, and the amount of styrene was compared with the standards of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A total of 12 foam boxes containing cod or redfish fillets were stored for 4, 7 or 13 days at either -1 ° C or 2 ° C, which corresponds to the optimal and highest probable temperature in fresh fillet shipping. One 10-50 g sample was taken from the lower part of the bottom fish fillet in each box and had thus been in direct contact with foam plastic and therefore placed in a glass bottle. Subsequently, the 12 samples were sent for analysis to Eurofins, an international laboratory in Germany. The results show that the amount of styrene, as well as other undesirable substances such as benzene and toluene, was below 0.01 mg / kg fish in all twelve fish samples. The FDA guideline (maximum) is 90 mg of styrene per kg of fish per person per day, which is equivalent to The result of this experiment is that a consumer has to consume 9000 kg of fish daily to meet the FDA standard, which is a very unrealistic amount. The main conclusion of this experiment is that it is not necessary to pack fresh fish fillets in plastic bags for packing in foam boxes, which are stored and transported in refrigerated and supercooled conditions.

The aim of the study was to investigate possible styrene migration from expanded polystyrene into fresh cod and redfish, two important export fish species in Iceland, while stored under conditions mimicking transport by ship from Iceland to America and Europe. American buyers wish to have a plastic bag between EPS boxes and fish during transport as a safety measure due to possible styrene migration. Thus, this project was conducted to investigate if adding a plastic bag is necessary with regards to safety limits for styrene migration from packaging to food set by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). A total of twelve samples of cod and redfish were stored in EPS boxes manufactured by Tempra ltd. for 4, 7 and 13 days at two temperatures (-1 ° C, 2 ° C) which represent optimal and expected maximum storage temperatures during sea transport of fresh fish. A sample of 10-50 grams of fish, which had been in direct contact with the packaging, was taken from the bottom of each box, as it is considered the most hazardous place regarding styrene migration, and put in a glass bottle before analysis. Finally, the twelve samples of fish were sent to Eurofins, an international laboratory in Germany, for analysis. The results show that styrene content, and other solvent residues like benzene or toluene, were below 0.01 mg / kg in all twelve samples of fish. The FDA's daily intake limit of styrene is 90 mg / kg per person per day, which means that in this study an unrealistic intake of at least 9000 kg of fish would be necessary to exceed this FDA´s limit. The main conclusion from this study is therefore that a plastic bag is not needed to safely pack cod and redfish fillets into EPS boxes to be stored under chilled and superchilled temperatures.

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Reports

The effects of different packaging solutions on the shelf life of fresh cod loins - drainage holes, cooling media and plastic bags

Published:

22/03/2017

Authors:

Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Björn Margeirsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

Tempra ehf, Útgerðarfélag Akureyringa ehf

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

The effects of different packaging solutions on the shelf life of fresh cod loins - drainage holes, cooling media and plastic bags / The effect of different packaging solutions on the shelf life of fresh cod necks
Boys' clothes, refrigerants and plastic bags

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different foam plastic boxes (with and without boys), the amount of coolant and plastic bags compared to plastic film in boxes on the quality of fresh cod necks. The age of the raw material during processing was about two days. Five different experimental groups were prepared and stored at -1.7 ° C for five days and subsequently stored at 2 ° C for 9 days, or the remainder of the storage period. Sensory assessment (Torry freshness assessment) and drip / water loss during storage were assessed 1, 7, 9, 12 and 14 days after packing. The results indicated that a neck piece packed under plastic wrap in a foam box without a boy and with the smallest amount (250 g) of refrigerant in the box was damaged significantly faster compared to other experimental groups. The longest shelf life from packing (12 days) was measured for products that were packed in a foam plastic box without boys, but were in a plastic bag inside the box and with a larger amount (750 g) of refrigerant (ice) outside the plastic bag. The results underlined the importance of maintaining a low and constant temperature throughout the storage period.

The aim of the study was to explore the effects of different expanded polystyrene (EPS) boxes (with and without drainage holes), cooling media and plastic bags compared to plastic films inside the boxes on the shelf life of fresh cod loins. The fish was caught two days before processing. Five experimental groups were prepared and stored at around - 1.7 ° C for five days followed by subsequent storage at around 2 ° C for nine days. Sensory (Torry score) and drip loss evaluations were performed 1, 7, 9, 12 and 14 days post packaging. The results indicated that loins packed under a plastic film in EPS boxes (without drainage holes) and with the lowest amount (250 g) of cooling medium spoiled faster compared with the other experimental groups. The longest shelf life from packaging (12 days) was obtained for loins packed in EPS boxes inside a plastic bag and covered with a larger amount (750 g) of ice. Furthermore, the sensory results were in accordance with the temperature profiles of the experimental groups, stating the advantages of a low and stable storage temperature.

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Reports

Analysis of damage to fresh fish products / Comparison of transport and packaging methods for fresh fish products - storage life study

Published:

13/07/2016

Authors:

Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Gunnar Þórðarson, Ásgeir Jónsson, Hrund Ólafsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Björn Margeirsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R 034‐14)

contact

Gunnar Þórðarson

Regional Manager

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

Analysis of damage processes in fresh fish transport / Comparison of transport and packaging methods for fresh fish products - storage life study

The aim of the project "Best fresh fish transport" was to improve the handling of fresh fish products in container transport and thereby increase their shelf life and the possibility of further transport by sea from Iceland, but there are significant savings compared to transport by air. This report deals with the analysis of the damage processes that take place during the storage and transport of fresh fish products. A comparison was made of transport in foam plastic boxes and in ice scrapers in pots at different temperatures. Different embodiments of both packaging solutions were compared and assessment factors included temperature, total number of microorganisms, amount of damaged microorganisms, water resistance, amount of erratic base and sensory assessment properties. In general, there was relatively little difference between experimental groups during storage. Differences were found between groups in individual sensory evaluation factors, but this difference was not comparable between days and is therefore probably due to the interaction between heterogeneous raw material and too few evaluated samples. The freshness time of all groups was seven to eight days and the shelf life was about 10 days. The packaging solutions studied in the experiment, as well as the storage temperature, had little effect on the spoilage processes of the cod products. The variability was primarily due to the storage time.

The aim of the project “Optimization of fresh fish transport” was to improve the handling of fresh fish products during sea freight and increase the shelf life and the possibility of further maritime transport from Iceland, involving significant savings relative to the air freight. The present report covers analysis of the deterioration processes occurring during storage and transportation of fresh whitefish products. Comparison was done between transportation in expanded polystyrene boxes and in slurry ice in tubs at different ambient temperature. Different versions of both packaging solutions were compared with regard to temperature, total viable count, amount of spoilage bacteria, water holding capacity, total volatile nitrogen bases (TVB ‐ N) and sensory properties. There were in general relatively small differences between experimental groups during the storage period. Some difference was observed between groups with regard to few sensory attributes, but the difference was not comparable between days which was likely due to heterogeneous material and too small sampling size. The freshness period of all experimental groups was seven to eight days and the shelf life around 10 days. The packaging solutions explored in the present study, as well as storage temperature, had generally little effect on the deterioration processes occurring in the fresh cod product. The observed variation was primarily attributed to the storage time.

Report closed until 01.08.2018

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Reports

Comparison of packing of fresh fish products in boxes and pots for export by ship / Packing of fresh fish products in boxes and tubs intended for sea transport

Published:

01/07/2016

Authors:

Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Ásgeir Jónsson, Gunnar Þórðarson, Björn Margeirsson, Sigurjón Arason, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Þorsteinn Ingi Víglundsson

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R 034‐14)

contact

Gunnar Þórðarson

Regional Manager

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

Comparison of packing of fresh fish products in boxes and pots for export by ship / Packing of fresh fish products in boxes and tubs intended for sea transport

The aim of the study was to find the best and most cost-effective method of packing fresh fish products for shipping with a view to maximizing the shelf life of a product, which is one of the key factors in the marketing of fresh fish products. Experiments were carried out with the transport of fresh fish products in containers with ice scrapers and compared with the transport in foam plastic boxes with regard to temperature control, product quality and transport costs. Different product groups were compared that were packed in different packaging and stored at different storage temperatures. The purpose of these experiments was to simulate the environmental conditions during the transport of fresh fish products, with a view to evaluating the effect of pre-cooling before packaging and packaging methods on the shelf life of the products. The results clearly indicate that refrigeration of products before packaging as well as low and stable storage temperatures are among the most important factors that increase the shelf life of fresh fish products. Different packaging solutions also affected the shelf life of fresh fish products, although the effect was not as decisive as the effect of temperature. The results indicate an increased likelihood of longer shelf life if fresh fish products are packed in tanks with sub-chilled sludge compared to traditional packaging in a foam plastic box with ice. To estimate the amount of ice scraper required to maintain an acceptable temperature, a heat transfer model was developed. An economic analysis of different packaging and transport was carried out in the project and this work shows significant savings with the use of tanks for transporting fresh fish products in comparison with foam plastic boxes. Pots can replace a foam plastic box to a considerable extent and be a cost-effective option for some companies. The economic analysis showed that larger parties could take advantage of this method, as they can fill entire containers for export. But the method is no less useful for smaller processes, which do not have the capacity to make large investments in equipment to ensure adequate cooling for the packaging of products for export of fresh raw materials. The results are a good contribution to discussions about fresh fish products in foreign markets.

The goal of the study was to find the best and most efficient method of packaging fresh fish for sea transport with the aim of maximizing the storage life of the product, which is a key element in the marketing of fresh fish. Experiments were made with the transport of fresh fish in tubs with slurry ice and compared with transport in expanded polystyrene boxes with regard to temperature control, product quality and shipping cost. Different product groups were compared, using different temperature conditions and packing methods to find the best outcome for fresh fish quality and storage life. Experimental results clearly indicate that the pre ‐ cooling for packaging and low and stable storage temperature play a major factor to maximize storage life of fresh fish products. Different packaging solutions are also a factor, though the effect was not as dramatic as the effects of temperature. The results indicate an increased likelihood of extended shelf life if fresh fish is packed in a tub with a slurry ice compared to traditional packaging in expanded polystyrene boxes with ice. In order to estimate the necessary amount of slurry ice to maintain acceptable temperature, a thermal model was developed. Economic analysis of different packaging and transport was also carried out and the results showed substantial savings with the use of tubs for the transport of fresh fish products in comparison with the styrofoam boxes.

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Reports

Effects of bleeding methods on the quality and storage life of cod and saithe products

Published:

01/02/2014

Authors:

Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Nguyen Van Minh, Sigurjón Arason, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Paulina E. Romotowska, Arnjótur B. Bergsson, Stefán Björnsson

Supported by:

AVS (R 11 087‐11)

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Effects of bleeding methods on the quality and storage life of cod and saithe products

The aim of the project was to examine the effect of different bleeding methods on the quality and shelf life of different cod and saithe products. By identifying ideal conditions for bleeding, gutting and bleeding, it is possible to prevent product defects due to blood and at the same time increase the stability of the products in transport and storage. The fish were either bloodied in the hands and in the machine. Bleeding took place in slush or sea and the effects of different bleeding times were examined. The effect of waiting time on tires before bleeding was also assessed, as well as bleeding and gutting the fish in one step or two steps (gutting performed after bleeding). The products studied in this project were chilled and frozen cod and saithe products, as well as salted cod products. Of the variables studied in this project, their importance differed in terms of which fish species were involved and what the final product was. When comparing comparable sample groups of cod and saithe, it is seen that different conditions are suitable for each species. This supports the theory that it is probably not possible to transfer the best bleeding method of cod to saithe and vice versa. Bleeding time and type of bleeding agent (sludge vs. seawater) had a decisive effect on the stability of the cod and saithe products examined. Cod products, both chilled and frozen, from raw material soaked in sludge generally resulted in improved quality and stability compared to if soaked in seawater. In contrast to cod, the bleeding of saithe into the sea generally resulted in a stable end product. The way the fish were bled and gutted also had a decisive effect on the final products. In the case of frozen cod products, raw and gutted raw material in one step generally yielded a more stable product compared to raw material that was gutted after bleeding had occurred (two steps). Salted products, on the other hand, were much more stable in storage if the raw material was gutted after bleeding. Different results were also obtained for saithe depending on the final product involved. Bleeding and gutting of saithe in a machine had a positive effect on the shelf life of chilled products compared to if made by hand. Machine bleeding and gutting, on the other hand, resulted in a much more unstable product in the cold. The results of the project show that the effects of different bleeding methods are quite dependent on the raw material as well as the final product involved.

The main objective of the project was to study the effects of different bleeding methods on quality and storage life of various cod and saithe products. Products defects due to blood residues can be prevented by optimizing bleeding protocols, and hence increase the quality and storage life of the products. For this, fishes were either bled and gutted by hand or by machine. The bleeding (blood draining) was carried out with seawater or slurry ice, and the effects of different bleeding times in the tanks were also investigated. Moreover, the effects of waiting time (on deck) before bleeding, as well as the procedure of bleeding technique (bleeding and gutting in one procedure vs. gutting after blood draining) were investigated. The various products evaluated were chilled and frozen cod and saithe products, and salted cod products. The importance of the different parameters investigated in this project varied considerably with regard to fish species and the final products. Comparison of parallel treatments groups of cod and saithe demonstrated that optimum bleeding procedures are different for each species. Waiting time on deck and bleeding media (slurry ice vs. seawater) significantly affected the storage life of the cod and saithe products. Cod products, both chilled and frozen, from fish bled in slurry ice generally resulted in improved quality and storage life compared to fish bled in seawater. In contrast to cod, bleeding or saithe in seawater resulted however in more stable products. The procedure during bleeding and gutting also had great impact on the storage life of the various products studied. Shorter storage life of salted cod products was generally observed when the raw material was bled and gutted in one step compared to when gutting was performed after bleeding (two steps). Rather conflicting results were, however, observed for saithe and were depending on the type of final product. Bleeding and gutting of saithe by machine improved the storage life of chilled products compared to when the saithe was bled and gutted by hand. The machine procedure had, however, negative effects on the storage life of the frozen saithe products. Overall, the results of this project indicate that the effects of different bleeding methods are highly relative to fish species as well as the final product of interest.

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Reports

Comparison of packaging methods for bulk storage of fresh cod loins / Comparison of packaging solutions in foam packaging for storage of cod products

Published:

01/08/2013

Authors:

Hélène L. Lauzon, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Björn Margeirsson

Supported by:

Promens Tempra ehf, Umbúðir og ráðgjöf ehf

contact

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Sensory evaluation manager

adalheiduro@matis.is

Comparison of packaging methods for bulk storage of fresh cod loins / Comparison of packaging solutions in foam packaging for storage of cod products

The main objective of the experiment was to compare packaging solutions for fish in terms of quality deterioration and product temperature during storage, which is similar to the conditions for export and distribution. The objectives were to compare cold storage of products packed (1) in 5-kg units in (H1) ship or (H2) air boxes; (2) in 3 ‐ kg units in (H3) airbags compared to H2; (3) with CO2 mats (H4) to reduce microbial growth in 5 kg units stored under 93% vacuum in EPS boxes. The results show that the lifespan of H1 was shorter, but there were smaller quality changes among the other groups. However, the freshness was longest and the lifespan of H4, which compares with slower TVB-N and TMA formation and microbial growth due to CO2 formation as well as lower product temperature. The fastest microbial growth was measured in H3 after 8 days of storage. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of TVB-N and TMA values, which were highest in H1 and H3. Drip was at least half as high in H4 as in other groups.

The overall aim of the storage study was to compare the quality deterioration and temperature profile of cod loins differently packaged in expanded polystyrene boxes and stored under conditions mimicking distribution. The purpose of the study was threefold; to compare chilled storage (1) or 5 ‐ kg bulk fish packaged in sea freight (H1) or air freight (H2) boxes; (2) of 3 ‐ kg (H3) or 5 ‐ kg (H2) bulk fish packaged in air freight boxes; (3) with the use of CO2 ‐ emitting pads (H4) as a mean to slow down bacterial deterioration of cod loins (5 kg) packaged under partial vacuum and stored in EPS boxes. The results clearly indicated that group H1 had a shorter shelf life as it developed spoilage characteristics faster than the other three groups. Less difference was seen between the remaining three groups but group H4 retained its freshness slightly longer than groups H2 and H3. This can be explained by the CO2 present and the lower mean product temperature. More advanced microbial spoilage was detected in H3 group compared to H2, as shown by higher microbial counts in H3 being though insignificant. No significant differences were observed after 8 ‐ day storage in TVB ‐ N and TMA content of the four groups, despite the higher levels measured in H1 and H3. Drip loss was at least two times higher in H4 than the other groups.

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Reports

Consumer's evaluation of enriched seafood product concepts / Consumer survey of enriched seafood dishes

Published:

01/03/2013

Authors:

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Kyösti Pennanen, Raija ‐ Liisa Heiniö, Rósa Jónsdóttir, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

Nordic Innovation

contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Consumer's evaluation of enriched seafood product concepts / Consumer survey of enriched seafood dishes

Compared to consumers elsewhere in the West, consumers in Europe seem to be more skeptical about food enrichment, and although food health claims carry a message of health effects, they do not necessarily make the product more attractive to consumers. Therefore, the development of enriched foods requires an understanding of consumer demands. An online survey was conducted to evaluate consumers' responses to product ideas on seafood that had been enriched with omega-3, fish proteins and algae, with different information on possible effects and functional properties. Icelandic consumers (n = 460) evaluated ideas for cod products and the results showed that enrichment of such seafood was a viable option, especially with omega-3. Although information on enrichment had a rather negative effect on people's experience of product ideas, information on ingredients and health effects of consumption had a positive effect on people's experience and the likelihood of buying the products in question. The impact of such information was somewhat greater among those consumers who placed more emphasis on health and had a positive attitude towards targeted foods. Finnish consumers (n = 432) evaluated ideas for salmon products and the results showed that the enrichment of seafood with kelp was one of the best results, especially when information on the reduction of salt content was included. From the results, it can be concluded that the enrichment of seafood is a realistic option. However, it is very important to consider the labels and information to consumers about such products.

Compared to consumers elsewhere in the Western world, European consumers generally seem to be more suspicious towards enrichment of food. Although health claims in food products communicate the health effect, it does not necessarily make the products more appealing to consumers. Therefore, development of enriched foods requires understanding of consumers' demands. The aim of this study was to measure consumer responses towards various concepts of enriched seafood products. Web ‐ based questionnaires were used to study Icelandic and Finnish consumers' responses towards concepts of convenience seafood products enriched with omega ‐ 3, fish proteins and seaweed extracts with different information about possible effects / functional properties. Icelandic consumers (n = 460) evaluated cod product concepts and the results showed that enrichment of convenience seafood was a realistic option, especially with omega ‐ 3. Although information about enrichment had rather negative effects, information about ingredients and health effects positively affected product perception and buying intention. The effect of information was greater among consumers which placed higher emphasis on health and expressed more positive attitudes towards functional foods. Two sets of Finnish consumers (n = 432) evaluated nine salmon product concepts. The results showed that products enriched with seaweed received relatively the highest scores, especially when information about salt reduction was provided. To conclude, enrichment of convenience seafood products with marine based ingredients is a realistic option. However, it is very important to consider labeling and information provided to the consumers.

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Reports

Gæðasalt í saltfiskverkun / Quality salt for curing of salted fish

Published:

01/02/2013

Authors:

Ásbjörn Jónsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Helgi Sigurjónsson, Egil Þórir Einarsson, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R 11 088‐11) and Tækniþróunarsjóður Ísl. A former user Italy (110667‐0611)

contact

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Sensory evaluation manager

adalheiduro@matis.is

Gæðasalt í saltfiskverkun / Quality salt for curing of salted fish

The main goal of the project was to use the geothermal sea in Reykjanes for the production of salt that can be used to produce high quality salted fish. A process will be developed to produce the salt with geothermal energy on site and to be able to control its chemical composition so that the correct effect of salted fish can be ensured. Salt extracted from the geothermal sea was compared with imported salt from the Mediterranean during the production of salted cod fillets with brine as pre-salting stage and dry salting at the end. The results showed that higher utilization was obtained in the salted fish processing with salt extracted from the geothermal sea, and that the processing took less time as the uptake of salt into the cod muscle was higher compared to the imported salt. Salt extracted from the geothermal sea was comparable in quality to the imported salt.

The aim of the project was to utilize raw material and energy from a geothermal brine to produce salt which can be used to increase the value in production of salted fish. Imported salt from Tunis was compared with the salt from geothermal brine, by producing salted cod from pickle salting followed by dry salting. The results showed that higher yield was observed in production of salted fish, by using salt produced from geothermal brine. Also curing took less time where the penetration of salt in the cod muscle was faster compared to the imported salt. The salt produced from geothermal brine is comparable with the imported salt.

Report closed until 01.02.2015

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Reports

Seasonal variation of fatty acid composition of cod flesh

Published:

01/03/2012

Authors:

Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir, Jónas R. Viðarsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

Fisheries Project Fund

contact

Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Chief Operating Officer

helga@matis.is

Seasonal variation of fatty acid composition of cod flesh

The report summarizes the results of measurements of the chemical content of the liver and cod muscles according to the season and fishing area. The results indicate that seasonal fluctuations in muscle fat content are relatively small. Another issue is the liver, its fat content was found to be lowest in the latter part of winter and in spring. At the same time, the water content was highest. Changes in the chemical composition of the liver were thought to be related to the fluctuations in the behavioral patterns and physical activity of the fish around spawning.

The report summarizes the results from measurements on chemical composition of liver and muscle of cod as affected by fishing grounds and seasonal variation. The results indicate that seasonal fluctuations in fat content of the muscle are relatively low. On the contrary, fat and water content in liver, varied with season. The fat content was lowest late winter and in spring. At the same time, the highest water content in liver was observed. These changes were explained by changes in behavior and physiological functional of the fish in relation to the reproductive cycle.

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