This study assessed the environmental impacts of a pelagic fishmeal and fish oil production plant in Iceland with the life cycle assessment methodology. The study focused on assessing the effects of different energy sources for utility production due to the high energy intensity of fishmeal and fish oil production, as quality improved with lower cooking temperature. The environmental hotspots of three different processing scenarios were assessed, where the factory was run on hydropower (Scenario 0), heavy fuel (Scenario 1) and a composition of both (Scenario 2), from cradle-to-factory gate. Midpoint results showed that the raw material acquisition contributed the most to the environmental impact when the fishmeal factory was operating on hydropower. However, drying had the highest impact when heavy fuel oil was used for utility production. This study also demonstrated that lowering the cooking temperature from 90 to 85 °C, led to improved quality and simultaneously reduced environmental impacts during processing. This indicated that a small energy adjustment in the production can have an environmental gain, demonstrating the necessity to optimize each processing step in the fishmeal and fish oil production process both for increased product quality and minimizing environmental impacts.
Nordic Center of Excellence Network in Fishmeal and Fish oil
The main objective of this work was to summarize current knowledge on fishmeal and fish oil as well as identify the research needs and create a roadmap for future industry-driven research. The main conclusion was that the quality of raw material, fishmeal and oil are not yet well defined. The real focus by the industry has mainly been limited to nutrients, such as proteins and fats and other components that makeup fishmeal. There has been less focus on the health benefits of dietary contents of fishmeal and oil and the relationship between processing methods and the nutritional and technical properties of fishmeal. In addition, to proactively strengthen the market position and competitiveness, it is crucial for the industry to achieve a common understanding of the needs of their customers in line with a clear profile of the benefits of their products. A communication strategy as well as a research strategy is needed.
Finally, the identity of the industry needs to be clear and transparent to promote a story about the industry to provide a clear and positive image of the industry to be communicated to society. This means, that a communication strategy as well as a research strategy must be established, as there is a lack of communication along the value chain from the industry to the consumers. There is still a lack of understanding by the consumers of why fishmeal is produced, the reasons must be communicated in such a way that it reaches the average consumer.
The industry members are interested in moving forward to sustain the future growth of the industry. Fishmeal and fish oil production has been prosperous for a very long time, but to remain so, cooperation among all stakeholders is crucial for continued progress.
Process control of pelagic fish crude oil / Process control of pelagic fish crude oil
The aim of this preliminary project was to analyze different currents in fishmeal and fish oil processing of pelagic species. Emphasis was placed on analyzing the fatty acid composition of liquids at different points in the liquid separator. It is believed that the product of the project can lead to improved production of pelagic fish body oil, as it will be possible to produce fish oil with different proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as EPA and DHA). By extracting the fish oil from different liquid streams, fish oil can be obtained with different properties and thus increase the value of fish oil products produced in fishmeal and fish oil factories. Significant variability in the fatty acid composition was measured in the samples, both by fish species and at the sampling site. The samples all had in common that monounsaturated fatty acids were in the majority independent of fish species and sampling site. Polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids followed. There was evidence that the longer polyunsaturated fatty acids degrade as the process progresses. With improved processing processes, it would be possible to start producing high-quality fish oil products for human consumption. It is therefore necessary to go into a much more detailed analysis of the whole process, but the results of this project indicate that there is still a long way to go.
The objective of the project was to identify different streams during production of fishmeal and oil from pelagic fish. Emphasis was placed on analyzing the fatty acid composition of streams collected at different processing steps. It is believed that the results can lead to improved production of pelagic fish oil, since it will be possible to produce fish oil with various proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as EPA and DHA). Considerable variability was observed between the collected samples, both by species as well as where in the process the samples were collected. Monounsaturated fatty acids were majority in all the samples, regardless of fish species and sampling location. Moreover, the results indicated that the longer polyunsaturated fatty acids can break down as the process goes further. With improved processing control, it is possible to produce high quality oil products intended for human consumption. A comprehensive analysis on the entire process is however necessary.
Report closed until 01.11.2020
Héðinn's Protein Factory (HPP) and Héðinn's Fish Oil Factory (HOP) / Hedinn protein plant and Hedinn oil plant
The aim of the project was to develop automatic fishmeal and fish oil factories (HPP and HOP). The factories are automatic, environmentally friendly and can run on electricity, steam or residual heat. The production process for fishmeal has been redesigned in many ways. Knowledge of the process control and physical properties of the raw material is based on a traditional fishmeal process, and this knowledge is used as a basis for the development of equipment for processing seafood. Experiments with HPP were divided into two main components: 1) testing of new equipment and production processes and 2) evaluation of material and energy flow in the production process. The main emphasis is on extra raw materials that are created in fish processing for human consumption, such as slag and bones from white fish. Tests have also shown the excellence of the factory for processing flour and fish oil from by-products from shrimp processing, salmon processing and pelagic fish processing, but these raw materials have been used in the production of fishmeal and fish oil for decades and their properties are known. Experiments with the HOP factory consisted of testing different welding times and temperatures during welding, as well as limiting the availability of oxygen to raw materials during processing. The results show that HPP and HOP have the ability to produce fishmeal and describe previously little used raw materials. The quality of the fishmeal and fish oil depended on the quality of the raw material that went into the factory. For a small factory located near a fish processing plant, the freshness of the raw material should not be a problem. Chemical measurements of flour and fish oil showed a low water content in the fish oil and a low fat content in the flour, which underlines that the new equipment used in the factory works as well as expected.
The aim of the project is to develop an automatic fish meal and fish oil factory (HPP and HOP). The factory is automatic, environmentally friendly and runs on electricity, steam or waste heat. The manufacturing process and equipment for fish meal has been redesigned in various ways. The knowledge on the process management and the properties of the raw material based on fish meal processing will serve as a basis for the companies to develop new equipment for the full processing of marine products. Experiments with HPP consisted of two main parts: 1) testing new equipment and manufacturing process and 2) examination of mass- and energy flow through the process. Focus was on by-products from processing fish for human consumption eg viscera from whitefish and bones. Also experiments have been conducted on shell from shrimp and pelagic fish which has been used for fish meal processing for decades with its well-known properties. Experiments with HOP factory consist of testing different cooking time and temperature, in addition to limit accessibility of oxygen to the raw material in the process. The results showed that HPP and HOP can produce fish meal and fish oil from previously little utilized by-products of many species. The quality of the fish meal and oil depended on freshness on the raw material. For a small factory that can be stationed close to a fish processing plant, the freshness of raw material should not be a problem. Measurement of low water content in fish oil and low fat content in the meal, states that the new equipment and process are giving results as hoped.
Production of valuable products from viscera / Production of valuable products from viscera
Fish stew is rich in many different substances such as protein, fish oil and minerals, which can be good in all kinds of valuable products. The purpose of the project was to investigate the possibility of using material from slag for pet food and / or fertilizer for plants. Cod processing with and without liver was performed with enzymes: on the one hand Alkalase and on the other hand a mixture of Alkalasa and cod enzymes. Attempts were made to collect fat phase from the slag. The fatty phase was analyzed for fatty acids and peroxide values were measured to assess the degree of development. The protein component was then spray dried and the following measurements were performed: protein content, amino acid analysis, trace element measurement, antioxidant activity (metal chelating ability, DPPH, ORAC, reducing ability and antioxidant activity in the cellular system) and antihypertensive activity. The main results are that the enzymatic slag has an excellent ability to bind to metal and can thus maintain metals (minerals) in a form that both plants and animals can use. The amino acid composition was also very suitable as nutrition for dogs and cats.
Fish viscera is rich in many different materials, such as protein, oil and minerals that can be good in all kinds of valuable products. The purpose of this project was to investigate the possibility of utilizing materials of viscera in pet food and / or fertilizer for plants. Viscera from cod processing with and without liver was processed with the following enzymes: Alcalase and a mixture of Alcalase and cod enzymes. Attempts were made to collect the lipid phase of the viscera. Fatty acids were analyzed in the lipid phase and measured peroxide values to assess the degree of rancidity. The remaining protein solution was spray dried and the following measurements performed: protein content, amino acid analysis, measurement of trace elements, antioxidant (metal chelating, DPPH, ORAC, reducing ability and antioxidant activity in cell systems) and blood pressure lowering activity. The main conclusion is that hydrolysed viscera protein has excellent ability to metal chelation and can thereby maintain metals (minerals) in the form that both plants and animals can utilize. Amino acid composition was also very suitable as nutrition for dogs and cats.