Reports

Freezing and thawing of Greenland halibut - experiments and CFD simulation

Published:

01/10/2009

Authors:

Björn Margeirsson, Lárus Þorvaldsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS, TÞS, UI Research Fund

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Freezing and thawing of Greenland halibut - experiments and CFD simulation

Freezing and thawing of halibut were studied experimentally and computerized thermodynamics (CFD) models. Whole pallets of semi-frozen halibut were placed in a cold store and the air temperature and halibut temperature in different places on the pallet were measured by thermometers. The time taken for the halibut to freeze from -10 to -5 ° C below -15 ° C ranged from one to four days depending on the location of the pallets. In thawing experiments, both individual bags and twenty bags, stacked on pallets, were examined in the temperature-controlled cold rooms of Matís and UI. The heating of a frozen product was mapped under conditions that may occur during unloading from freezer trawlers or 10 - 20 ° C air temperature. The results of the experiments were compared with the results of three-dimensional heat transfer models, and there was generally good agreement between them. At 10 p.m. storage at 12.6 ° C air temperature raised the temperature in individual bags from about -26 ° C to approx. ‐5 ° C. At such a long temperature load, the temperature in pallet bags rose from -22.5 ° C to from -17 to -3 ° C, which shows how homogeneous the heat distribution can be with prolonged heat load. The results of the CFD model showed that 10 m / s wind during loading significantly accelerates the thawing of frozen fish on pallets.   

Freezing and thawing of Greenland halibut was investigated with experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. A whole pallet of half ‐ frozen halibut was put in a frozen storage and ambient temperature and fish temperature at different locations in the stack monitored. The required freezing time from ‐10 - ‐5 ° C down to ‐15 ° C was one to four days depending on the location within the stack. In the thawing experiments, both single, free standing halibut bags and twenty halibut bags stacked on a pallet, were investigated in an air climate chamber. The warm up of full ‐ frozen product was mapped under typical temperature conditions during unloading of products from freezer trawlers, ie at 10 - 20 ° C ambient temperature. A good comparison between the CFD simulation and experimental results was obtained. Fish temperature increased from ‐26 ° C to - 5 ° C inside single bags when thermally loaded for 10 hours at 12.6 ° C ambient temperature. Equally long temperature abuse for the whole pallet, initially at ‐22.5 ° C, resulted in a very inhomogeneous temperature distribution from ‐17 to ‐3 ° C. The results from the CFD modeling showed that 10 m / s wind during unloading seriously accelerates thawing of frozen fish.

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Reports

The value and safety of Icelandic seafood. Food safety and added ranking / Food safety and added value of Icelandic seafood. Risk profiling and risk ranking

Published:

01/05/2007

Authors:

Eva Yngvadóttir, Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund and IFL / Matís ohf

The value and safety of Icelandic seafood. Food safety and added ranking / Food safety and added value of Icelandic seafood. Risk profiling and risk ranking

In this project, basic work was carried out on risk assessment for cod, shrimp, redfish, haddock, halibut, herring, saithe and kúfisk. These species were mapped for risk and their risk composition was obtained and a semi-quantitative risk assessment was performed on them. This risk assessment used a calculation model that has been developed in Australia and is called Risk Ranger. The risk assessment used data on consumption habits (dosages, frequency, etc.), frequency and causes of foodborne illness. Thus, the risk associated with the consumption of these marine products was calculated, based on certain assumptions. The reliability of a risk assessment is entirely dependent on the data and information used in its implementation. According to the available measurement data and given assumptions, the above-mentioned seafood products are classified in the lowest risk category (level <32) - low risk, compared to healthy individuals. In international food markets, Icelandic seafood has a good reputation for health and safety. Concerns about food safety, however, are growing in many places, so it is a great challenge for Icelanders to maintain this good reputation in the future.

This report contains the preliminary results of a risk profiling and risk ranking study for the following species: cod (Gadus moruha), shrimp (Pandalus borealis), ocean perch (Sebastes marinus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) , saithe (Pollachius virens) and Iceland cyprine (Cyprina islandica). These species were surveyed with regard to terms of undesirable substances (Risk profiling and risk ranking, as well as semiquantitative risk assessment). An Australian software, Risk ranger, was used to compute the risk assessment. Various data, eg consumer behavior (daily intake, frequency etc.), and incidence and origin of food-borne diseases, were used. Thus, the risk of consuming these species was determined. The reliability of a risk assessment is dependent on the quality of the data which are used to carry it out. Based on the existing data and given prerequisites, it can be stated that the aforementioned species come under the lowest risk group (degree <32) - small risk, considering healthy individuals. Icelandic seafood products are renowned on the international food markets as being quality and safe food. However, in light of growing concern worldwide for food safety, it is a challenge for Icelandic seafood producers to maintain that good reputation.

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