Reports

Nutrient value of seafood - Proximates, minerals, trace elements and fatty acids in products

Published:

01/10/2011

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Natasa Desnica, Svanhildur Hauksdóttir, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Annabelle Vrac, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir, Heiða Pálmadóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Nutrient value of seafood - Proximates, minerals, trace elements and fatty acids in products

Measurements were made of the main substances (protein, fat, ash and water), minerals (Na, K, P, Mg, Ca) and trace elements (Se, Fe, Cu, Zn, Hg) in the main types of marine products prepared on the market. These included fish fillets, roe, shrimp, lobster and various processed products. Measurements were made of fatty acids, iodine and three vitamins in selected samples. Several products were chemically analyzed both raw and cooked. The aim of the project was to remedy the lack of data on Icelandic seafood and make it accessible to consumers, producers and retailers of Icelandic seafood. The information is available in the Icelandic database on the chemical content of food on Matís' website. Selenium was generally high in the marine products studied (33-50 µg / 100g) and it is clear that marine products can play a key role in satisfying people's selenium needs. The fatty acid composition varied according to the types of seafood and there were special characteristics that can be used as indicators of the origin of the fat. The majority of polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafood were long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. The amount of minerals was very variable in seafood and there are changes in the concentration of these substances in processing and cooking. There was little loss of the trace elements selenium, iron, copper and zinc during cooking. Measurements were made on both selenium and mercury as selenium counteracts the toxicity of mercury and mercury is one of the undesirable substances in marine products. In all cases, mercury proved to be well below the maximum levels in the regulation. Roe and roe products had the special feature of containing very much selenium but also very little mercury.

Proximates (protein, fat, ash and water), minerals (Na, K, P, Mg, Ca) and trace elements (Se, Fe, Cu, Zn, Hg) were analyzed in the most important Icelandic seafoods ready to be sent to market. The samples were fish fillets, roe, shrimp, lobster, and several processed seafoods. Fatty acids, iodine, and three vitamins were analyzed in selected seafoods. A few seafoods were analyzed both raw and cooked. The aim of the study was to collect information on the nutrient composition of seafood products and make this information available to consumers, producers and seafood dealers. The information is available in the Icelandic Food Composition Database. Selenium levels were generally high in the seafoods studied (33‐50 µg / 100g) and seafoods can be an important source of selenium in the diet. Fatty acid composition was variable depending on species and certain characteristics can be used to indicate the fat source. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly long chain omega ‐ 3 fatty acids. The concentration of minerals was variable, depending on processing and cooking. Small losses were found for selenium, iron, copper and zinc during boiling. Both selenium and mercury were analyzed since selenium protects against mercury toxicity and data are needed for mercury. Mercury in all samples was below the maximum limit set by regulation. Roe and lumpsucker products had the special status of high selenium levels and very low mercury levels.

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Reports

Undesirable substances in seafood products. Results from the monitoring activities in 2007

Published:

01/09/2009

Authors:

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Sasan Rabieh, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Ministry of fisheries and agriculture

contact

Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Chief Operating Officer

helga@matis.is

Undesirable substances in seafood products. Results from the monitoring activities in 2007

In 2003, at the initiative of the Ministry of Fisheries, monitoring of undesirable substances in marine products began, both products intended for human consumption and products for the fish oil and flour industry. The purpose of the monitoring is to assess the condition of Icelandic marine products with regard to the amount of contaminants. The data collected in the monitoring project will also be used in risk assessment and to build up a database on contaminants in the Icelandic ecosystem. Coverage of contaminants in marine products, both in the mainstream media and in scientific journals, has many times demanded the response of the Icelandic government. It is necessary to have scientific results available that demonstrate the actual condition of Icelandic seafood in order to prevent damage that may result from such coverage. Furthermore, the limits of contaminants are under constant review and it is important for Icelanders to participate in such a review and support their case with scientific data. This shows the importance of regular monitoring and that Iceland conducts independent research on such an important issue as marine product pollution. This report is a summary of the results of the monitoring in 2007. Assessment of the state of Icelandic marine products with regard to contaminants is a long-term project and will only be carried out through continuous monitoring. Every year, therefore, the missing data is carefully reviewed and thus the aim is to fill in the gaps. In 2007, the following were measured: dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and PCBs, PBDEs, PAHs, as well as ten different types of pesticides, as well as heavy metals and other trace elements, in marine products intended for human consumption as well as products for the fish oil and flour industries.

This project was started in 2003 at the request of the Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture. Until then, monitoring of undesirable substances in the edible portion of marine catches had been rather limited in Iceland. The purpose of the project is to gather information and evaluate the status of Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances. The information will also be utilized in a risk assessment and gathering reference data. This report summarizes the results obtained in 2007 for the monitoring of various undesirable substances in the edible part of marine catches, fish meal and fish oil for feed. The monitoring began in 2003 and has now been carried out for five consecutive years. The evaluation of the status of the Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances is a long-term project which can only be reached through continuous monitoring. For this reason, we carefully select which undesirable substances are measured in the various seafood samples each year with the aim to fill in the gaps in the available data over couple of years. In 2007 data was collected on dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs, ten different types of pesticides, PBDE, PAH, as well as trace elements and heavy metals in the edible part of fish, fish liver, fish oil and fish meal for feed.

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Reports

Undesirable substances in seafood products– results from the monitoring activities in 2006

Published:

01/07/2008

Authors:

Ásta Margrét Ásmundsdóttir, Vordís Baldursdóttir, Sasan Rabieh, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Supported by:

Ministry of fisheries

contact

Vordís Baldursdóttir

Project Manager

vordis.baldursdottir@matis.is

Undesirable substances in seafood products– results from the monitoring activities in 2006

In 2003, at the initiative of the Ministry of Fisheries, monitoring of undesirable substances in marine products began, both products intended for human consumption and products of the fish oil and flour industry. The purpose of the monitoring is to assess the condition of Icelandic marine products with regard to the amount of contaminants. The data collected in the monitoring project will also be used in risk assessments and to influence the setting of maximum levels for undesirable substances, for example in Europe. Coverage of contaminants in marine products, both in the mainstream media and in scientific journals, has many times demanded the response of the Icelandic government. It is necessary to have scientific results available that demonstrate the actual condition of Icelandic seafood in order to prevent damage that may result from such coverage. Furthermore, the limits of contaminants are under constant review and it is important for Icelanders to participate in such a review and support their case with scientific data. This shows the importance of regular monitoring and that Iceland conducts independent research on such an important issue as marine product pollution. This report is a summary of the results of the monitoring in 2006. It is a long-term goal to assess the condition of Icelandic seafood in terms of the amount of undesirable substances. This goal can only be achieved through continuous monitoring for a long time. Each year, the monitoring is aimed at adding the most needed data and thus making the database more accurate and comprehensive with each passing year. in marine products intended for human consumption and in fishery and flour products.

This project was started in 2003 at the request of the Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries. Until then, monitoring of undesirable substances in the edible portion of marine catches had been rather limited in Iceland. The purpose of the project is to gather information and evaluate the status of Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances. The information will also be utilized for a risk assessment and the setting of maximum values that are now under consideration within the EU. This report summarizes the results obtained in 2006 for the monitoring of various undesirable substances in the edible part of marine catches, fish meal and fish oil for feed. This project began in 2003 and has now been carried out for four consecutive years. One of the goals of this annual monitoring program of various undesirable substances in seafood is to gather information on the status Icelandic seafood products in terms of undesirable substances, this is a long-term goal which can be reached through continuous monitoring by filling in the gaps of data available over many years. For this reason, we carefully select which undesirable substances are measured in the various seafood samples each year with the aim to eventually fill in the gaps in the available data over couple of year time. The results obtained in 2003, 2004 and 2005 have already been published and are accessible at the Matis website (IFL Report 06-04, IFL Report 33-05 and IFL Report 22-06, respectively). In 2006, data were collected on, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (17 substances), dioxin-like PCBs (12 substances), marker PCBs (7 substances), 10 different types of pesticides, polybrominated flame retardants PBDE as well as trace elements and heavy metals.

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Reports

Inorganic trace elements in organisms in NW Iceland

Published:

01/12/2007

Authors:

Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir, Guðjón Atli Auðunsson, Guðmundur Víðir Helgason, Rósa Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Sasan Rabieh

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund, Fisheries Research Institute, Matís

contact

Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

Chief Operating Officer

helga@matis.is

Inorganic trace elements in organisms in NW Iceland

The purpose of the study was to seek explanations for the uniqueness of NV targets, especially in Arnarfjörður, with respect to inorganic trace elements, especially cadmium, in organisms. For this purpose, the concentration of trace elements in samples of mussels (Mytilus edulis), scallops (Chlamys islandica) and sea sediments was measured in several places around Iceland, with special emphasis on the collection of samples on NW tickets. The main results of the project are that the concentration of cadmium in mussel samples from Arnarfjörður is generally considerably higher than in other samples taken from mussels on NV tickets and this difference is statistically significant (T-test, α = 0.05 (5%)). There is also a tendency for the concentration of iron, copper, manganese and zinc to be lower in mussels in Arnarfjörður than in other fjords in the north-west, and this difference is most noticeable for iron and zinc. The results show that the concentration of cadmium in mussels from Arnarfjörður is above the EU maximum values for mussels in 9 samples out of 10, in addition there are samples of mussels from cultivation belts from Hestfjörður in Ísafjarðardjúpur and Ósafjörður (in from Patreksfjörður) above the EU limit (1.0 mg / kg wet weight for sandwiches). Mussel samples from Dýrafjörður, Seyðisfjörður in Ísafjarðardjúpur and Patreksfjörður by Sandoddi are also very close to the EU border. The amount of trace elements in sediments on NV fishing grounds seems to be very similar to previous measurements of trace elements in Icelandic sea sediments in these areas. This indicates that the explanation for the high concentration of cadmium in mussels from Arnarfjörður is probably not to be found in the higher concentration of cadmium in sediments in this area. The results of the project provide information on the uniqueness of Icelandic waters in terms of inorganic trace elements. Such information and scientific data are a prerequisite for Icelanders to be able to influence decision-making when setting maximum values for food, for example in the EU. The results of the project have already been used to influence the increase in EU maximum levels for cadmium in sandwiches and have been sent to EFSA for data collection on cadmium in food.

The aim of this research was to investigate the unique position of the territorial waters around NW-Iceland, especially Arnarfjörður, with respect to trace elements, particularly cadmium, in biota. In order to achieve this goal, trace elements in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), scallops (Chlamys islandica) and sediments around Iceland were analyzed, with special emphasis on sampling in the NW-Iceland area. The main results from this research indicate that cadmium levels are statistically higher in blue mussels from Arnarfjörður compared to other areas in NW-Iceland (T-test, α = 0.05 (5%)). In contrast with cadmium, the iron, copper, manganese and zinc concentrations were lower in the blue mussels from Arnarfjörður in comparison with other areas in NW-Iceland. This difference was most obvious with regard to iron and zinc. The cadmium level in blue mussels from Arnarfjörður, Hestfjörður in Ísafjarðardjúp and Ósafjörður exceeds the maximum cadmium level (1.0 mg / kg wet weight) set by the European commission (EC) for Bivalve molluscs. The cadmium level in blue mussels from Dýrafjörður, Seyðisfjörður in Ísafjarðardjúpi and Patreksfjörður are also close to the maximum cadmium level set by EC. The results for trace elements in sediments from Arnarfjörður do not however explain the high levels of cadmium observed in blue mussels from this area.

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Reports

Dried fish as health food

Published:

01/09/2007

Authors:

Ásbjörn Jónsson, Guðrún Anna Finnbogadóttir, Guðjón Þorkelsson, Hannes Magnússon, Ólafur Reykdal, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS Research Fund, (AVS-Fund)

contact

Guðjón Þorkelsson

Strategy & Stakeholders

gudjon.thorkelsson@matis.is

Dried fish as health food

One of the main goals of the project was to obtain basic information about the properties of Icelandic dried fish and that the information would be open and thus for the benefit of all dried fish producers in Iceland. The main conclusion of the project is that dried fish is a very rich protein source with 80-85% protein content. The amino acids were measured and compared with amino acids in eggs. The result is that dried fish proteins are of high quality. These results support the marketing of dried fish as both a healthy food and a national food. It is important to look at the salt content in dried fish better and try to reduce it to increase the health of dried fish, especially in hot-dried dried fish, as it was much higher than in other dried fish. Measurements of trace elements showed that their amount in dried fish is well within limits compared to the recommended daily allowance (RDS) except in selenium. Its amount in 100 g is three times the recommended daily dose. However, it is not considered harmful in any way.

The main object of this project was to provide information of the quality in Icelandic dried fish to be of benefit for all producers in Iceland. The main results showed that dried fish was a very rich source of proteins, containing 80-85% protein. Amino acids were measured and compared to the amino acids in eggs. It was concluded that the proteins in the dried fish were of high quality. This supports the marketing of dried fish in the health foods and traditional food markets. It is important to better analyze the salt content in dried fish and reduce it to improve balanced diet in dried fish, especially for indoor produced dried fish, which salt content is rather high. The trace elements in dried fish showed minimal content, except for selen where the content was threefold the recommended daily allowance (RDA). This is not hazardous for people in any way.

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Reports

The value and safety of Icelandic seafood. Food safety and added ranking / Food safety and added value of Icelandic seafood. Risk profiling and risk ranking

Published:

01/05/2007

Authors:

Eva Yngvadóttir, Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund and IFL / Matís ohf

The value and safety of Icelandic seafood. Food safety and added ranking / Food safety and added value of Icelandic seafood. Risk profiling and risk ranking

In this project, basic work was carried out on risk assessment for cod, shrimp, redfish, haddock, halibut, herring, saithe and kúfisk. These species were mapped for risk and their risk composition was obtained and a semi-quantitative risk assessment was performed on them. This risk assessment used a calculation model that has been developed in Australia and is called Risk Ranger. The risk assessment used data on consumption habits (dosages, frequency, etc.), frequency and causes of foodborne illness. Thus, the risk associated with the consumption of these marine products was calculated, based on certain assumptions. The reliability of a risk assessment is entirely dependent on the data and information used in its implementation. According to the available measurement data and given assumptions, the above-mentioned seafood products are classified in the lowest risk category (level <32) - low risk, compared to healthy individuals. In international food markets, Icelandic seafood has a good reputation for health and safety. Concerns about food safety, however, are growing in many places, so it is a great challenge for Icelanders to maintain this good reputation in the future.

This report contains the preliminary results of a risk profiling and risk ranking study for the following species: cod (Gadus moruha), shrimp (Pandalus borealis), ocean perch (Sebastes marinus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) , saithe (Pollachius virens) and Iceland cyprine (Cyprina islandica). These species were surveyed with regard to terms of undesirable substances (Risk profiling and risk ranking, as well as semiquantitative risk assessment). An Australian software, Risk ranger, was used to compute the risk assessment. Various data, eg consumer behavior (daily intake, frequency etc.), and incidence and origin of food-borne diseases, were used. Thus, the risk of consuming these species was determined. The reliability of a risk assessment is dependent on the quality of the data which are used to carry it out. Based on the existing data and given prerequisites, it can be stated that the aforementioned species come under the lowest risk group (degree <32) - small risk, considering healthy individuals. Icelandic seafood products are renowned on the international food markets as being quality and safe food. However, in light of growing concern worldwide for food safety, it is a challenge for Icelandic seafood producers to maintain that good reputation.

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Reports

Dried fish as a health food

Published:

01/05/2007

Authors:

Ásbjörn Jónsson, Guðrún Anna Finnbogadóttir, Guðjón Þorkelsson, Hannes Magnússon, Ólafur Reykdal

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

contact

Guðjón Þorkelsson

Strategy & Stakeholders

gudjon.thorkelsson@matis.is

Dried fish as a health food

The main goal of the project was to obtain basic information about the properties of Icelandic dried fish and that the information would be open and thus to the benefit of all dried fish producers in Iceland. The main conclusion of the project is that dried fish is a very rich protein source with 80-85% protein content. The amino acids were measured and compared with amino acids in eggs. Dried fish proteins proved to be of high quality. These results support the marketing of dried fish, both as a healthy and national food. It is important to look at the salt content of dried fish better and try to reduce it to increase the health of dried fish, especially in hot-dried dried fish as it turned out to be much higher than in other dried fish. Measurements of trace elements showed that their amount in dried fish is well within limits compared to the recommended daily allowance (RDS) outside selenium. Its amount in 100 g is three times the recommended daily dose. However, it is not considered harmful in any way.

The main object of this project was to establish information of the quality of Icelandic dried fish, which could benefit producers in Iceland. The main results showed that dried fish is a very rich source of proteins, containing 80-85% protein. Amino acids were measured and compared with amino acids in eggs. The conclusion was that proteins in the dried fish were of high quality. This supports the marketing of dried fish in the health foods and traditional food markets. However, it is important to analyze better the salt content in dried fish and find ways to reduce it to improve balanced diet in dried fish, especially for indoor produced dried fish, where the salt content is rather high. The trace elements in dried fish were found to be minimal, except for selen, where the content was threefold the recommended daily allowance (RDA). This is not, however, hazardous for people in any way.

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