Reports

Ratio of meat, fat and bones in lamb meat – Chemical content of lamb meat and by-products 

Published:

15/12/2023

Authors:

Óli Þór Hilmarsson, Ólafur Reykdal, Guðjón Þorkelsson, Helgi Briem and Hafliði Halldórsson

Supported by:

Icelandic Food Innovation Fund (is. Matvælasjóður)

Contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

In the project, an assessment was made of the ratio of meat, fat and bones in lamb meat. Carcasses from the meat evaluation categories O-2, R-2, R-3, U-2, U-3, U-3+, and E-3 were selected for the evaluation, nine carcasses from each evaluation category, a total of 63 carcasses. Carcasses from these categories cover the 92% production based on the division into meat food categories in 2021. Carcasses were selected on three different slaughter days, in two slaughterhouses, in the north and the south, in such a way that the head of the meat evaluation department at the Food Agency, selected all carcasses and confirmed that each a carcass would be a traditional carcass in its assessment category and not at the edge of the category. The day after slaughter, the carcasses were split in half. One half was divided into thighs, forequarters, loins and loins according to the traditional division, while the other half was divided into three weight categories, lightweight under 14.5 kg, medium 14.5 - 16.8 kg and heavy 16.9 - 19.0 kg. The halves were then divided in different ways, with parts going into the various products. Precision deboning was applied to both halves of the lamb carcasses to find the division of the various cuts and products into meat, fat, bone and sinew. Atrophy was also found due to loss of ossification. 

Meat utilization (meat ratio) for the lamb carcasses as a whole was 59.0 (50.7-67.3)%, fat ratio was 16.2 (9.7-28.0)%, bone ratio was 17.7 (13.4- 22.1)% and the tendon ratio was 6.3 (4.4-8.1)%. Atrophy during precision boning was 1.1 (0.0-2.5)%. The average meat utilization was highest in the evaluation category U-2, except for the front part, where the utilization was somewhat higher in E-3. Within the flesh filling categories U and R, it was clearly seen how the percentage of fat changes according to the definitions of fat categories. 

The proportion of meat, fat and bones in different quality categories confirms that the meat assessment is realistic and in accordance with the definitions behind the assessment. 

The proportions of meat, fat, bones, tendons and shrinkage were found for 30 lamb products from selected weight classes. High meat percentage was obtained for thigh without rump, hip bone and tail bone from heavy carcasses (74%) and thigh with shank without hip from both light and medium carcasses (69%). 

Measurements were made of nutrients in lamb pieces and lamb products. Heavy metal measurements were made on lamb pieces. These results will be useful for packaging labeling and for providing information to consumers and retailers. The lamb meat was so rich in vitamin B12, vitamin folate, potassium and zinc that it is permissible to label these substances as part of the meat's nutrition label on the packaging. The heavy metals mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic were not measurable in the meat, i.e. were below the limits that could be safely measured. This limit is very low and therefore the possible concentration of heavy metals is extremely low.  

Sampling of lamb offal and other side products took place in three slaughterhouses, at SS in Selfoss, KS in Sauðárkrók and Norðlenska in Húsavík. Samples were obtained from liver, kidney, heart, lung, testicle, esophagus, pancreas, spleen, and blood. Chemical measurements were made on selected nutrients and heavy metals. The lamb offal and by-products are rich in iron and selenium, but these substances are important nutrients. All samples reach significant levels of selenium. In the case of significant quantities, labeling of food packaging is permitted according to the labeling regulation. Most of the samples reached significant levels of iron. The heavy metal cadmium was detectable in liver and kidney but not in other samples. Mercury, lead and arsenic were not measurable in the samples, although with the exception that mercury in the kidneys was measurable. 

Chemical measurement results call for attention and improvements in labeling and information. 
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Muscle, fat and bone ratios of Icelandic lamb meat were studied. Carcasses from the EUROP grades: O-2, R-2, R-3, U-2, U-3, U-3+, and E-3 were selected, nine carcasses from each grade, a total of 63 carcasses. Carcasses from these grades represent 92% of the lamb meat production in Iceland as reported for 2021. Carcasses were selected during three slaughtering days, in two slaughterhouses in north and south Iceland. The grade classifications of carcasses were confirmed by a specialist from the Icelandic Food and Veterinary Authority. 

The carcasses were divided into halves the day after slaughtering. One half was divided into traditional leg, forequarter, saddle, and flank. The other half was used for the study of various cuts, where each product was made from one of three selected carcass weight ranges: light carcasses below 14.5 kg, medium carcasses 14.5-16.8 kg and heavy 16.9-19.0 kg. Boning was carried out on all products and dissection yields were reported (meat, fat, bones, tendons). Wastage due to cutting, and boning was reported. 

Tissue ratio for whole lamb carcasses were on average 59% meat, 16% fat, 18% bones, and 6% tendons. Wastage during thawing and cutting was 1.1%. The meat yields were highest for grade U-2, except for forequarter which had a bit higher meat yield for grade E-3. For grades U and R, it was clear that fat yields were related to the definitions of fat thickness for the grade subgroups 2, 3 and 3+. 

Dissection yields were reported for meat, fat, bones, and tendons in 30 meat products made from carcasses of different weights. Highest meat yields were for leg products (74% and 69%). 

Selected nutrients were analyzed in legs, forequarters, saddles, flanks, and several other cuts. The results will be used for labeling and dissemination. Lamb meat was rich in vitamin B12, folate, potassium, and zinc. These nutrients can be used for nutrition declarations of the meat. The heavy metals mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic were not detected (were below the detection limits) in lamb meat. The detection limits were very low. 

Sampling of lamb side-products were carried out in three slaughterhouses, at Selfoss, Sauðárkrókur and Húsavík. The following side-products were sampled: Liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, testis, esophagus, pancreas, spleen, and blood. Selected nutrients and heavy metals were analyzed. The side-products were generally rich in selenium and iron which can be used for nutrition declarations in most cases. The heavy metal cadmium was reported for liver, and kidneys, cadmium was however not detected in other side-products. Mercury was only detected in the kidneys. Lead and arsenic were not detected in the side-products. 

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Reports

Utilization and nutritional value of Icelandic poultry meat

Published:

23/03/2020

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Óli Þór Hilmarsson

Supported by:

Agricultural Productivity Fund, Matfugl ehf, Reykjagarður hf, Ísfugl ehf

Contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Utilization and nutritional value of Icelandic poultry meat

The aim of the project was to improve information on the utilization and nutritional value of chickens and turkeys produced in Iceland and thus strengthen the position of the livestock industry in competition with imports. Precision analysis revealed the proportions of individual chicken and turkey parts. Chemical measurements were performed on the factors required for nutrition labeling. In addition, measurements were made of minerals and vitamins in selected chicken parts. It turned out that Icelandic chickens are now lower in fat, with less saturated fatty acids and less energy than before, according to a comparison with old values in the ÍSGEM database. The concentrations of some minerals and vitamins in chicken meat were so high that they could be added to the nutritional value label. Nutrition results will be used to update the ÍSGEM database and information on utilization will be part of the Meat Book and will be useful to the meat industry and meat buyers.  

The purpose was to obtain new data for dissection yields and nutrient value of Icelandic chicken and turkey and by this strengthen the position of the poultry production in Iceland. Detailed dissection yields were determined for several chicken and turkey parts. Nutrients were analyzed for nutrient declarations. Additionally, minerals and vitamins were analyzed in selected products. Fat, saturated fat and energy in chicken meat were lower than reported earlier. The concentrations of some of the minerals and vitamins were high enough to allow nutrient declaration. The nutrient data are made available in the ISGEM database. The dissection yield data will be available in the Icelandic Meat Book and will be important for the meat industry and meat buyers. 

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Reports

Chemical composition of silver - Seasonal fluctuations

Published:

26/08/2019

Authors:

Þóra Valsdóttir, Karl Gunnarsson

Supported by:

Fisheries Project Fund, AVS

Contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Chemical composition of silver - Seasonal fluctuations

The aim of the study was to examine the amount of nutrients, minerals and trace elements in oats by season to assess when it is best to harvest them from a nutritional point of view. Samples were taken at two locations, Tjaldanes by Saurbær in Dalasýsla and Herdísarvík by Selvogur in Reykjanes in the period from October 2011 to April 2013.

Seasonal fluctuations were detected in the content of nutrients in silver in both Herdísarvík and Tjaldanes and then followed the same process. In early spring, fiber, protein, fat, ash and water levels peaked. Measurements also indicated seasonal fluctuations in some of the minerals and trace elements measured; potassium, phosphorus, iodine, selenium, cadmium and lead. Heavy metals were within the limit limits with the exception of cadmium in winter.

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Reports

Nutrient value of seafood - Proximates, minerals, trace elements and fatty acids in products

Published:

01/10/2011

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Natasa Desnica, Svanhildur Hauksdóttir, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Annabelle Vrac, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir, Heiða Pálmadóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

Contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Nutrient value of seafood - Proximates, minerals, trace elements and fatty acids in products

Measurements were made of the main substances (protein, fat, ash and water), minerals (Na, K, P, Mg, Ca) and trace elements (Se, Fe, Cu, Zn, Hg) in the main types of marine products prepared on the market. These included fish fillets, roe, shrimp, lobster and various processed products. Measurements were made of fatty acids, iodine and three vitamins in selected samples. Several products were chemically analyzed both raw and cooked. The aim of the project was to remedy the lack of data on Icelandic seafood and make it accessible to consumers, producers and retailers of Icelandic seafood. The information is available in the Icelandic database on the chemical content of food on Matís' website. Selenium was generally high in the marine products studied (33-50 µg / 100g) and it is clear that marine products can play a key role in satisfying people's selenium needs. The fatty acid composition varied according to the types of seafood and there were special characteristics that can be used as indicators of the origin of the fat. The majority of polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafood were long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. The amount of minerals was very variable in seafood and there are changes in the concentration of these substances in processing and cooking. There was little loss of the trace elements selenium, iron, copper and zinc during cooking. Measurements were made on both selenium and mercury as selenium counteracts the toxicity of mercury and mercury is one of the undesirable substances in marine products. In all cases, mercury proved to be well below the maximum levels in the regulation. Roe and roe products had the special feature of containing very much selenium but also very little mercury.

Proximates (protein, fat, ash and water), minerals (Na, K, P, Mg, Ca) and trace elements (Se, Fe, Cu, Zn, Hg) were analyzed in the most important Icelandic seafoods ready to be sent to market. The samples were fish fillets, roe, shrimp, lobster, and several processed seafoods. Fatty acids, iodine, and three vitamins were analyzed in selected seafoods. A few seafoods were analyzed both raw and cooked. The aim of the study was to collect information on the nutrient composition of seafood products and make this information available to consumers, producers and seafood dealers. The information is available in the Icelandic Food Composition Database. Selenium levels were generally high in the seafoods studied (33‐50 µg / 100g) and seafoods can be an important source of selenium in the diet. Fatty acid composition was variable depending on species and certain characteristics can be used to indicate the fat source. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly long chain omega ‐ 3 fatty acids. The concentration of minerals was variable, depending on processing and cooking. Small losses were found for selenium, iron, copper and zinc during boiling. Both selenium and mercury were analyzed since selenium protects against mercury toxicity and data are needed for mercury. Mercury in all samples was below the maximum limit set by regulation. Roe and lumpsucker products had the special status of high selenium levels and very low mercury levels.

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Reports

Íslenskt bygg til matvælaframleiðslu / Icelandic barley for food production

Published:

01/12/2008

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal (editor / editor), Jónatan Hermannsson, Þórdís Anna Kristjánsdóttir, Jón Óskar Jónsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Emilia Martinsdóttir, Birgitta Vilhjálmsdóttir, Jón Guðmundsson, Guðmundur Mar Magnússon.

Supported by:

The Agricultural Productivity fund

Contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Íslenskt bygg til matvælaframleiðslu / Icelandic barley for food production

The project "Increased value from Icelandic barley" was carried out in the years 2006 to 2008 in collaboration with Matís ohf, the Agricultural University of Iceland, barley producers and food companies. Measurements were made of nutrients, contaminants and microorganisms in the building. The hygienic beta-glucans, which are water-soluble fiber, attracted special attention. The safety of the barley was satisfactory according to measurements of microorganisms and contaminants. Tests on baking barley bread took place in companies and it was shown that Icelandic barley is well suited for baking products. Sensory evaluation and consumer surveys were conducted on barley bread and similar breads without barley. The barley bread had its own characteristics and received generally good reviews. Barley malt was produced and then used as a raw material in brewing. It was possible to produce beer of satisfactory quality, but the main problem with the malt production was the low germination rate of the barley. Draft quality requirements for Icelandic barley for the production of baked goods and barley malt were compiled.

The project “Increased value of Icelandic barley” was carried out during the years 2006 to 2008 in cooperation between Matis ohf, Agricultural University of Iceland, barley producers and food manufacturers. Nutrients, contaminants and microbes were measured in Icelandic barley. The water soluble dietary fiber, beta-glucan, was of special interest. The safety of Icelandic barley was sufficient according to measurements of contaminants and microbes. Barley was tested for bread baking and the result was that Icelandic barley can be used for bread making. Breads with and without barley were tested by sensory evaluation and consumer testing. Barley breads had special sensory properties and were well accepted. Malt was produced from Icelandic barley and used for production of beer. The beer was of good quality but the main problem with the malt production was low proportion of sprouting barley. Quality criteria were drafted for Icelandic barley for production of bakery products and malt.

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