Reports

Air-dried lamb. Final report / Air dried lamb meat. Final report

Published:

01/05/2010

Authors:

Þóra Valsdóttir, Óli Þór Hilmarsson, Guðjón Þorkelsson

Supported by:

Productivity Fund, Professional Council for Sheep Breeding / BÍ Board

Contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Air-dried lamb. Final report / Air dried lamb meat. Final report

The aim of the project was to develop products from air-dried lamb in collaboration with farmers. The project was also about increasing farmers' skills in processing and processing lamb into air-dried products, ie. make them suitable for the manufacture of such products. A co-operation group of 5 farmers was formed who were interested and have facilities for home processing of such products. The aim was to develop one product with each farmer, and the product must meet all the requirements for safety, quality, finish and presentation that are relevant for products in the consumer market. In the main, it went well. Farmers were able to adopt the production methods necessary for dry processing and they developed new production processes and products, each different from what is on the market today. The results therefore strengthen the farm in question for the development of new products from its own raw materials and thus their working basis.

The aim of the project was to develop products from air dried lamb in cooperation with farmers. The project centered as well on extending farmers' knowledge on processing and curing methods for these products. Group of five farmers was selected to participate in the project. All farmers had an interest and facilities for this kind of processing. The products should fulfill all requirements regarding safety, quality and presentation of consumer products. This succeeded in most cases. The farmers adopted practices needed in producing dry aired products, new processing methods and products were developed. The results will thus strengthen each producer in development of new products from their own raw material, thus boosting their own operation.

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Reports

Taste and pastures. Progress report

Published:

01/12/2009

Authors:

Rósa Jónsdóttir, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Óli Þór Hilmarsson, Guðjón Þorkelsson

Supported by:

Agricultural Productivity Fund, Agricultural University of Iceland

Contact

Rósa Jónsdóttir

Research Group Leader

rosa.jonsdottir@matis.is

Taste and pastures. Progress report

The project is about researching and investigating whether there are differences in the characteristics and tastes of lamb meat according to grazing habits and the origin of lambs in them. The purpose is to further strengthen the basis for the processing and sale of lamb directly from the farm based on the specificities of each area. The project is carried out in collaboration with Austurlambur, Búnaðarsamband Austurlands, the towns of Hákonarstaðir and StóraBreiðuvík, Gunnarsstaðir, Matís and the Association of Chefs. It is divided into preparation by farmers, slaughter and sampling, measurements of flavors and aromas, assessment of culinary properties, settlement and presentation at the Agricultural Research Council and preparation of promotional material for the farm / area in question for use in marketing and finally writing a scientific article on the research. The project hopes to be able to describe in detail the taste and characteristics of lamb meat of different grazing types to use when the meat is sold in the local lamb market in online stores, tourism, restaurants and other gourmet markets so that higher prices can be obtained. the meat and higher profitability directly on the farm. The farm in question and Austurlamb will utilize the results in promotions and marketing work, as well as the project being useful to other producers and processors of lamb meat. All preparation, slaughter, sampling and measurements have been completed and the results are being processed. A final report and publication of the results is expected in February at the Agricultural Research Council. At the end of January, a half-day seminar on the effects of grazing on the taste of lamb is planned, held at Matvælaskólinn in Kópavogur with the participation of Matís, Matvælaskólinn, sheep farmers and chefs.

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Reports

Grazing on Angelica archangelica and flavor of lamb meat / Grazing on Angelica archangelica and flavor of lamb meat

Published:

01/07/2009

Authors:

Guðjón Þorkelsson, Rósa Jónsdóttir, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Óli Þór Hilmarsson

Supported by:

National Association of Sheep Farmers

Contact

Guðjón Þorkelsson

Strategy & Stakeholders

gudjon.thorkelsson@matis.is

Grazing on Angelica archangelica and flavor of lamb meat / Grazing on Angelica archangelica and flavor of lamb meat

The effect of grazing on angelica on volatile substances, fatty acids, odor and taste of heated lamb was studied. 18 lambs were divided into three equal groups. One was on a traditional pasture, another was 3 weeks and a third 6 weeks before slaughter on a pasture where angelica was predominant. The lambs were 120-140 days old at slaughter. A graphical test, Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) was used to describe the sensory properties of heated vertebral muscle with surface fat. Volatile fragrances were isolated from aggregate vertebral muscle samples with fat from all three groups and measured on a gas mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to obtain the mass spectra of the substances and thus identify them. Gas chromatography olfactometry (GC-O), based on the odor of substances as they emerge from the gas column, was used to identify odoriferous substances which may be in very small quantities but produce characteristic odors. Fatty acids were measured by gas analysis. The statistical method ANOVA (GLM - General Linear Model) and Duncan`s tests were used to analyze whether experimental groups differed in terms of sensory assessment factors and odorants. Experimental group sensory symptoms were examined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The partial least square regression analysis (PLSR) was performed. The model had volatile substances and fatty acids as control variables (X-variables) and statistically significant sensory evaluation factors as response variables (Y-variables). Most of the variability in sensory evaluation results could be explained by whether or not the lambs were on angelica. The meat of lamb angelica had a spicy odor and spice flavor associated with high levels of αpinene, β-phellandrene and octanal and C18: 1 and C18: 2 fatty acids but lamb meat on a traditional pasture had a lamb and wool odor and generally stronger odor and flavor associated with 2-butanone, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and saturated fatty acids. The time spent on angelica explained only the 4.6% variability. The results indicate that special terpenoids i.e. β-phellandrene and α-pinene are characteristic of the meat of lambs that have been on angelica. The results of the project strongly suggest that grazing angelica in the last weeks before slaughter changes the taste of lamb. The study confirms that angelica meat is unique. This feature can then be used in the marketing of the meat.

The influence of finishing traditional grazing lambs on fields of Angelica archangelica on volatile compounds, fatty acids and odor and flavor of cooked meat was studied. 18 lambs were divided into 3 equal groups. One grazing on traditional grassland pasture, one grazing for 3 weeks and one grazing for 6 weeks on Angelica pasture. The lambs were slaughtered at the age of 120-140 days. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) was used to describe the sensory attributes of cooked loins with subcutaneous fat. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography olfactometry (GC-O) were used to identify volatile compounds and describe their odors. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Analysis of variance was used to study the influence of treatments on sensory attributes. Relationship between sensory attributes, volatiles and fatty acids was studied using principal component analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR). Most part of the variation in sensory data (95.4%) was explained by the grazing or not grazing on Angelica. Meat of lambs that grazed on Angelica had spicy odor and flavor that correlated with high amount of α-pinene, β-phellandrene and octanal and C18: 1 and C18: 2 fatty acids while the meat of the control lambs that continued to graze on pasture had lamb meat and wooly odors and generally stronger odors and taste that correlated with high amounts of 2-butanone, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone together with saturated fatty acids. Only small part of the variation (4.6%) was explained by how long the lambs grazed on Angelica. The results indicate that specific terpenoids, eg βphellandrene and α-pinene can be used as indicators of Angelica pasture. The results strongly indicate that grazing traditional grass pasture lambs on Angelica fields changes the flavor of the meat. The study confirms that the Angelica meat is unique and this can be used in the marketing of the meat.

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Reports

Air-dried lamb. Forathugun / Air dried products from lamb

Published:

01/03/2009

Authors:

Þóra Valsdóttir, Óli Þór Hilmarsson, Guðjón Þorkelsson

Supported by:

Technology Development Fund

Contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Air-dried lamb. Forathugun / Air dried products from lamb

The aim of the project is to prepare a collaborative project between parties in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Norway on the development of air-dried lamb products in connection with the establishment of small start-up companies and food tourism.

The report includes a summary and analysis of the state of air drying in Iceland and a survey of market and commercial criteria. The analysis is divided into:

(1) a survey of the status of air-dried lamb in Iceland

(2) the impact of production methods on efficacy, quality and safety: a summary of technical and safety considerations; and

(3) a summary of the criteria for marking the origin and protection of certain products.

Finally, the selection of partners and the formulation of projects related to air drying of lamb are explained.

The aim of the project is to prepare a cooperative project between parties in Iceland, Faroe Islands and Norway on development of new air-dried products from lamb. The product development will be done in relation with establishment of small companies and food tourism.

The report is a summation and analysis on the situation of air drying in Iceland and exploration of market and business-related issues. The analysis is divided into:

(1) exploration on the situation of air dried lamb in Iceland

(2) influence of production methods on curing, quality and safety

(3) summation of criterion for origin-based labeling and protection of specific products.

Finally, established cooperation and creation of projects linked to air dried lamb is listed.

Report closed until 01.04.2012 / Report closed until 01.04.2012

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Reports

Assessment of slaughter in sheep slaughterhouses in the autumn of 2008

Published:

10/02/2009

Authors:

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson, Óli Þór Hilmarsson, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Guðjón Þorkelsson

Supported by:

National Association of Sheep Farmers

Contact

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson

Research Group Leader

valur.n.gunnlaugsson@matis.is

Assessment of slaughter in sheep slaughterhouses in the autumn of 2008

The Annual General Meeting of the National Association of Sheep Farmers decided in April 2008 that a detailed assessment will be made of the treatment of lamb at slaughter, especially during killing and cooling. An explanatory memorandum to the resolution stated: "The meeting considers it necessary to examine the possible effects of these two factors on the quality of the meat. When the animal is killed by electricity, there is a risk that the carcasses will not be able to bleed sufficiently and there is a risk of cooling hardening with too rapid cooling or freezing. Matís ohf. carried out an assessment of the above factors in the autumn of 2008 where the killing and cooling processes in 6 slaughterhouses were examined, of which one house was visited twice. Monitor the killing of 100 carcasses in each house to see procedures and take out facilities. The acidity and temperature of the carcass were measured regularly as well as the temperature in the slaughterhouses of the slaughterhouses. Carcasses taken in this study followed jogging through the normal process of action in each slaughterhouse, but before freezing, the backbone was removed and frozen. Vertebral muscles were then used in texture measurements to see different gravitational processes between slaughterhouses on the meat of the meat. The results show that the killing method affects the death stiffening process. It was much further in the carcasses of lambs in houses that use the "head-back" method than in houses that had a head clip. Cooling time is clearly too short in some houses. Thus the freezing temperature was highest as it was shortest and well above 6.0 in the house where it was only 4 hours. The viscosity of the meat was lowest in the vertebral carcasses from the slaughterhouse, where the head-back killing method was used, electrical stimulation was used and extensive and long cooling ensured that the meat was almost completely tenderized.

At annual general meeting of sheep farmers association in 2008 was concluded that a general observation ought to take place on treatment of lamb meat at slaughterhouses, particularly at electrocute step and the cooling phase. The aim was to see the influence of these factors on meat quality. Matis ohf. visited 6 slaughterhouses in autumn 2008. The results showed that the electrocution method affected the pH of carcasses. In some slaughterhouses the cooling phase was too short and therefore the pH was too high in carcasses when they were frozen. The tenderest meat came from the slaughterhouse where the meat was electrically stimulated and there was a long cooling paste.

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Reports

Effect of chilling on lamb tenderloin

Published:

01/01/2007

Authors:

Ásbjörn Jónsson, Óli Þór Hilmarsson, Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson

Supported by:

Agricultural Contracts Executive Committee

Contact

Óli Þór Hilmarsson

Project Manager

oli.th.hilmarsson@matis.is

Effect of chilling on lamb tenderloin

In recent years, cooling in slaughterhouses has increased significantly. Therefore, cooling in meat is faster. The speed of cooling has a great influence on the quality of meat. The refrigeration must follow the process of freezing to death in such a way that the meat quality is as high as possible, and it is therefore important to control the refrigeration process. Too fast cooling or freezing of lamb shortly after slaughter can cause cooling in the meat and the result is stiffer meat. The main objective of the project was to study the texture properties (tenderness) in lamb meat at different refrigeration temperatures and time in the slaughterhouse. Temperature measurements were performed in dilka carcasses in the slaughterhouse of slaughterhouses at different air temperatures. Samples were taken from the vertebral body dilka carcasses after varying lengths of presence in the meat hall, and they were frozen. Texture measurements were then performed on the samples to assess the effect of cooling on the muscle. The results of this study showed that meat stored in a meat hall and frozen the same day (after 4-5 hours) was stiffer than meat that had a longer cooling time in a meat hall. The project was carried out by Matís employees and funded by the Agricultural Contracts Executive Committee.

In recent years chilling in abattoirs has increased significantly and, furthermore, chilling in meat has become more rapid. The chilling rate has great effects on the quality of meat. The chilling has to correlate with rigor mortis to gain the best quality of the meat. A too rapid chilling or freezing of the meat shortly after slaughtering will cause cold shortening in the meat and the result is tough meat. The main object of the project was to study the textural properties of lamb meat at different chilling conditions and time in abattoirs. Samples were taken from the M. longissimus after different storage in the chilling room, and frozen. Measurements of textural properties were performed on the samples to estimate the impact of chilling of the muscle. The results indicated that meat stored for a short time in the chilling room and then frozen the same day (after 4 -5 hours) was tougher than meat stored for longer time in the chilling room. The project was done by employees of Matís and sponsored by the Ministry of agriculture.

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