News

Value creation in Icelandic aquaculture

Contact

Gunnar Þórðarson

Regional Manager

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

Side streams in aquaculture are mostly divided into two categories, ie. K2, which is a fish that dies by itself in pens, and K3, which is offal that occurs during slaughter, as well as heads, spines and trimmings that occur during processing. Raw materials from K2 may not be processed for human consumption or in feed for animals bred for human consumption, and therefore other markets must be considered, for example pet or fur animals. However, K3 can go into production for human consumption or in the feed of animals consumed by humans.

This is a significant amount that is added as a by-product of aquaculture in Iceland. More than five thousand tons of K2 and more than two thousand tons in K3 are expected. Today, these raw materials are mostly processed into malt, which is exported to Norway for further processing into animal feed. Processing of by-products from fillet processing has been frozen and used to make feed for fur farming.

Spontaneously dead fish from pens (K2) are immediately processed on board feed barges and delivered to local Norwegian buyers on board cargo ships. Due to the limited use of this raw material, the values are below the cost price of smelt production. There are more possibilities for the production of digestate from K3, which can be used to make feed for farm animals and even for human consumption, which increases the value considerably. It has been agreed with buyers that if they take K2, they will also get K3, without payment for products of both categories.

In this project "Value creation in Icelandic aquaculture", which was partially financed by the AVS research fund in the fishing industry/Food Fund, points out ways to increase value creation in digestate processing. The project looked for ways to reduce costs and increase value in the production of digestate from the by-streams of aquaculture, where in particular the aim was to reduce transport costs by processing the digestate more, removing fish oil and water from it, which reduces volume and weight during transport and gives the opportunity to work it into more expensive products. Salmon farming in Iceland today is spread across East Iceland and Vestfjörður, in addition to extensive land farming being prepared in at least three locations in the South, and therefore it is important to find solutions to collect and transport the side raw materials from fire and slaughter to further processing, but considerable equipment needed for that.

The project explores important possibilities in the utilization of K2 and K3, which until now has been a cost for the fish farm and could turn it into value creation. To advance these ideas, it is necessary for the research community to work closely with aquaculture companies and regulatory authorities.

  • The thickening is carried out by steaming under vacuum which takes place at 30-50°C and therefore the properties of the proteins are mostly preserved. But during drying, some of these properties are degraded due to the high evaporation temperature during drying.
  • In the future, it would be possible to think of using concentrate directly in feed production and omitting the drying step, which is costly (capital costs are high and also operating costs) and not environmentally friendly. In this way, it would be possible to significantly reduce soot during this processing and the feed would be more environmentally friendly.

To move forward, it is important to develop these ideas in collaboration with the industry and the research community. It is also important that the government and regulatory bodies get involved in order to ensure that the regulatory framework is in line with the needs and requirements of all stakeholders.

Reports

By-products from the vegetable sector

Published:

07/03/2022

Authors:

Eva Margrét Jónudóttir, Ólafur Reykdal, Rósa Jónsdóttir

Supported by:

Matvælasjóður / Icelandic Food Innovation Fund

This report is part of the project "Improved quality, shelf life and reduced waste in the value chain of Icelandic vegetables." roughly estimate the amount of by-products that occur on an annual basis. In addition, chemical measurements were performed on selected by-products.

The report contains a summary of conclusions and proposals. It is believed that there is great potential for value creation from the by-products that occur during vegetable production in Iceland. One way of value creation is the isolation of bioactive substances for use in food, dietary supplements and cosmetics. Possibilities also include fermentation and acidification of by-products and their processing for incorporation into food. Horticultural waste must also have waterways that lead to utilization. Food safety should always be the first issue when developing products from by-products. It is therefore necessary to make measurements of undesirable substances in by-products before new products are developed.
_____

This report is a part of the project „Improved quality, shelf-life and reduced waste in the vegetable value chain.“ The main tasks were studies of (a) current utilization of by-products from the vegetable production, (b) possible product development, (c) information on toxins in the by-products, (d) amount of available by-products. Additionally, nutrient analyzes were carried out on selected by-products.

The report includes conclusions and proposals. It is concluded that there are considerable possibilities for value creation from vegetable by-products. One of the possibilities is the use of bioactive compounds from by-products for food, supplements and cosmetic products. Other possibilities are fermentation and addition of homogenized by-products to foods. Wastes from horticulture should also have routes for utilization. Food safety should always be considered when food uses of by-products are considered. Therefore, by-products should be analyzed for contaminants and toxicants.

View report

Reports

Utilization and nutritional value of Icelandic poultry meat

Published:

23/03/2020

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Óli Þór Hilmarsson

Supported by:

Agricultural Productivity Fund, Matfugl ehf, Reykjagarður hf, Ísfugl ehf

Contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Utilization and nutritional value of Icelandic poultry meat

The aim of the project was to improve information on the utilization and nutritional value of chickens and turkeys produced in Iceland and thus strengthen the position of the livestock industry in competition with imports. Precision analysis revealed the proportions of individual chicken and turkey parts. Chemical measurements were performed on the factors required for nutrition labeling. In addition, measurements were made of minerals and vitamins in selected chicken parts. It turned out that Icelandic chickens are now lower in fat, with less saturated fatty acids and less energy than before, according to a comparison with old values in the ÍSGEM database. The concentrations of some minerals and vitamins in chicken meat were so high that they could be added to the nutritional value label. Nutrition results will be used to update the ÍSGEM database and information on utilization will be part of the Meat Book and will be useful to the meat industry and meat buyers.  

The purpose was to obtain new data for dissection yields and nutrient value of Icelandic chicken and turkey and by this strengthen the position of the poultry production in Iceland. Detailed dissection yields were determined for several chicken and turkey parts. Nutrients were analyzed for nutrient declarations. Additionally, minerals and vitamins were analyzed in selected products. Fat, saturated fat and energy in chicken meat were lower than reported earlier. The concentrations of some of the minerals and vitamins were high enough to allow nutrient declaration. The nutrient data are made available in the ISGEM database. The dissection yield data will be available in the Icelandic Meat Book and will be important for the meat industry and meat buyers. 

View report

Reports

Measurements of the characteristics of foal meat

Published:

03/07/2019

Authors:

Eva Margrét Jónudóttir, Guðjón Þorkelsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Óli Þór Hilmarsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Supported by:

Agricultural Productivity Fund

Contact

Eva Margrét Jónudóttir

Researcher

evamargret@matis.is

Measurements of the characteristics of foal meat

Domestic horsemeat sales are only about half of production, and while meat consumption is growing with increased economic growth, this does not apply to horsemeat. Horses are generally not bred specifically for meat production, but the meat is a by-product of equestrian breeding and drug production from mare's blood. The popularity of equestrianism and the production of medicines are unlikely to decline in the next few years, so there is every reason to make horsemeat high and thus prevent further marketing problems in the future. Horse meat has been in a marketing campaign abroad in recent months, especially in Asia, but information is lacking about its characteristics. The main goal of the project was to gather and disseminate information that supports and facilitates the way of marketing and sales of horsemeat. Products from three foals slaughtered on 03.12.18 were examined. Thermostat was placed in the refrigerator and in the innermost muscles of the body. Acid syringes were inserted into their spinal muscles after slaughter. All carcasses were deboned in the slaughterhouse at Hella and weighed according to the division into muscle, processing material, bones and fat. Each muscle was divided into 4 parts. The first was in color measurement, the second in chemical measurement, the third in sensory evaluation and the fourth in surgical measurement and measurement of southern shrinkage. In addition, samples were sent for analysis of bacterial counts as well as Listeria bacteria. It took about 17 hours for acidity to fall into the spinal muscles after slaughter and it took about 24 hours in the refrigerator after slaughter for the carcass to reach a perfect ambient temperature at 5 ° C. Measurements on cooked muscle confirm that foal meat is tender meat. Sequence of increasing surgical force (viscosity) is: Puffs <ball steak <arch muscle <hip stitch <thigh tongue <vertebral muscle <lump <outer thigh <brisket <inner thigh muscle. Southern atrophy during cooking was about 25%. Listeria moinocytogenes was never measured and all samples were below microbial criteria. Flavor was generally low or not measurable but increases proportionally more with increasing intramuscular fat as it lasts during storage. According to color measurements, foal meat is similarly light but slightly redder and yellower than lamb and there was a nuance difference between the muscles. After 14 days of storage, the meat became slightly redder / yellower. Muscles used as whole muscle by carcass are only 34.7% of total dead weight. The raw material is 28.9%, which tells us that the proportion of what is normally used by the drop weight is 63.6%. Horse meat has everything to offer in order to be sold as a high-quality meat product, and there should be nothing to prevent it from making better use of this valuable resource.

The main objective was to gather and disseminate information that will support marketing of equine meat. Meat and offals from three foals were analyzed. Temperature was monitored in chiller and carcasses after slaughter and pH loggers were placed in the loin muscle (m. Longissimus dorsi). Yield was measured by cutting the carcasses into muscles, triminngs, fat and bone the day after slaughter. Each muscle was cut into 4 parts.The first was used for measuring CIELAB L, a, b * color. The second was analyzed for nutritional value. The third was cooked and analyzed for sensory properties and the fourth cooked and analyzed for Warner Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. In addition, samples were submitted for analysis of bacterial numbers as well as Listeria bacteria. It took about 17 hours for the pH to drop in the loin muscles after slaughter and it took about 24 hours for the carcasses to reach chiller temperature of 5 ° C. Shear force analysis confirmed the tenderness of foal meat. Cooking loss was about 25%. Listeria monocytogenes was not detected, and all samples were within acceptable limits for microbial counts. Generally, rancid flavor was little or not detected but increased proportionally with increasing intramuscular fat and storage time. Foal meat is similar to or lighter but more reddish and yellow than lamb met and there are slight differences between muscles. After 14 days of storage, the meat became slightly redder / yellower. Whole muscles were only 34.7% of carcass weight. Meat trimmings were 28.9%. The total yield was therefore 63.5%. Foal meat is a high-quality meat product and there are opportunities to market as such, and also to develop new products from the trimmings.

View report

Reports

New technology to increase the value of catfish catches

Published:

01/07/2018

Authors:

Gunnar Þórðarson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R 025-11), Rannís

Contact

Gunnar Þórðarson

Regional Manager

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

New technology to increase the value of catfish catches

The purpose of the project was to adapt processing to supercooled raw materials, to ensure the homogeneity of raw materials with the aim of improving product quality, increasing utilization and minimizing fillet defects. In the project, a new type of skinning machine was developed and then tested under real conditions. Comparison of supercooled and traditional (frozen) ingredients. Supercooled raw material is stiffer than conventional, and the same can be said for fillets cooled after filleting to ensure packing in fresh packages at low temperatures, preferably below 0 ° C. Traditional skinning machines have not been able to handle such raw material, but the new machine has already been put into use and is proving successful. A comparative experiment was carried out between super-chilled haddock that was six days old and traditional raw material from the same catch. Subsequently, a comparative study was conducted on cod, made from super-chilled and conventional raw materials. Utilization, fillet quality and defects were compared, as well as product division after cutting into fillet pieces, as well as temperature processes during processing in both groups. The results were very good for supercooled raw materials, both in terms of quality, utilization and temperature of products.

The purpose of the project was to customize processing of sub-chilled raw materials to ensure uniformity of raw materials with the aim of improving product quality, increasing utilization and minimizing fillet defects. A new skinning machine for demersal fish was designed and tested in this project, especially to work with sub-chilled raw material. Sub-chilled raw material is more rigid than traditional raw material and can withstand more handling and give better quality of the finished product. Sub-chilled raw material also provides lower product temperature in packed fresh fish production, at 0 ° C or even below it. Traditional skinning machines have not been able to handle sub-chilled fillets. A comparative experiment with six-day old haddock where sub-chilled raw material were compared with traditional one, from same catch, were processed. Built on that outcome a follow-up, a comparative study of cod was processed with sub-chilled and traditional raw material. In both experiments a comparison of yield, fillets quality, fillets defects and temperature throughout the production into final packaging were recorded. The results were excellent in favor of sub-chilled raw material, both in terms of quality, yield and temperature of products.

View report

Reports

By-products from whitefish processing / By-products from catfish processing

Published:

01/07/2016

Authors:

Ásbjörn Jónsson, Jónas R. Viðarsson

Contact

Jónas Rúnar Viðarsson

Head of Value Creation

jonas@matis.is

By-products from whitefish processing / By-products from catfish processing

This report summarizes information on the utilization of important catfish species in Iceland, explains which products are processed from the resulting raw material and examines the possibilities for increased utilization of by-product raw materials. The report is prepared in connection with the Nordic research project "Alt i land" led by the Faroese company Syntesa. "Alt i land" is part of the Faroese Presidency's program of the Nordic Council of Ministers, which examines the current utilization and possibilities for improving utilization in catfish processing in the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Norway and Iceland. The main results from this project show that utilization in catfish processing in Iceland is significantly higher than in the other countries. In addition to publishing this report, Matís has held two workshops in connection with the project, where stakeholders came together to discuss possible opportunities to increase utilization and value creation in catfish processing.

The objective of this report is to analyze the current utilization of the most important Icelandic whitefish species and identify possibilities for improving utilization of by-raw materials even further. The report is a part of a larger international project, called “Alt i land”, which is led by the Faroese company Syntesa. Alt i land is a part of the Faroese chairmanship program at the Nordic Ministers of council. The objective of Alt i land is to study and compare utilization in whitefish processing in Faroe Islands, Greenland, Norway and Iceland, and to suggest how utilization can be improved in these countries. The main results from that project show that utilization is much higher in Iceland than in the other countries. In addition to publishing this report, Matís has facilitated a series of workshops with selected stakeholders where potentials in increasing utilization have been discussed.

View report

Reports

Raw material process in shrimp factories

Published:

01/01/2013

Authors:

Gunnar Þórðarson, Albert Haraldsson, Albert Högnason, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Minh Van Nguyen, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

Westfjords Growth Agreement

Contact

Gunnar Þórðarson

Regional Manager

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

Raw material process in shrimp factories

Shrimp processing has been very successful in improving the utilization of raw materials, and the utilization has decreased from 20% to over 40% in just over twenty years. The use of poly ‐ phosphate (PP) has been important in this process, but these substances have been used together with salt and citric acid as excipients in the pre-processing of the shrimp. Utilization has been the best in the processing of thawed raw materials, but utilization has been significantly poorer in fresh shrimp. In Kampa shrimp processing, fresh shrimp are divided into two main categories; deep-sea shrimp and deep-sea shrimp caught in Ísafjarðardjúpur or Arnarfjörður. Ocean prawns have given better utilization than deep-sea prawns, which in most cases are smaller. The main purpose of this project was to compare the activity of these substances on thawed and fresh shrimp to improve utilization for the latter category. A study was set up to measure weight gain with differently strong blends and different times on fresh shrimp. Three experiments were performed, the first with both deep-sea shrimp and deep-sea shrimp, and the second two with only deep-sea shrimp. Studies were conducted from October 2011 to June 2012. The results of these studies strongly indicated that the pickling time of fresh shrimp needed to be shortened compared to thawed, but a traditional mixture gave the best results. This project was to test snail equipment from 3X Technology, Rotex, and compare the result with the traditional Kampa method, with 660 l. kerum. A new and cheaper method was introduced before this part of the study was carried out and it was therefore decided to cancel that part of the project. Instead, it was decided to focus on chemical research into the uptake of PP substances and what effect this would have on utilization in shrimp processing. Extensive research was started, but its scope is more than enough for a small project like this. Further research is therefore needed to complete this project, but the results obtained from this project are a good basis for further research. The result of the project is improved utilization for pelleting of deep-sea shrimp and deep-sea shrimp, which yields approx. one percentage point during processing.

The shrimp industry has achieved great success in improving the utilization of raw materials with the yield going from about 20% to over 40% in just over twenty years. Use of polyphosphates (a „poly ‐ phosphate„ (PP)) has been important in this process, but these materials have been used along with salt and citric acid as an excipient in the preliminary raw material method for shrimp. Best result has been in processing defrosted (frozen raw material) material with lesser yield using fresh material (unfrozen raw material). Kampi shrimp factory are mainly using two types of fresh raw material, in ‐ fjord shrimp from Arnarfjordur and Isafjardardjup, and deep water shrimp from fresh ‐ fish trawler fishing north of Iceland. The in ‐ fjord shrimp is generally smaller than the deep ‐ water shrimp. The main purpose of this project was to find a way to gain yield in processing the fresh material, and to transfer success in processing the defrosted shrimp to the fresh material. To do so a different strength of ingredients in pre ‐ maturing fluid in raw material method was used along with different time of maturing. The effect of this experience was recorded. Three experiments were conducted, the first with both in ‐ fjord shrimp and deep water shrimp, but the latter two with deep water shrimp only. Studies were conducted from October 2011 to June 2012. Results of these studies strongly indicated that a shorter time should be used for fresh material to gain better yield, but traditional combination of ingredients for maturing blend gave the best result. The second objective of this project was to test Rodex equipment from 3X Technology for raw material processing and compare the results with the traditional method Kampi uses, with 660 l. tubs. Before the test was conducted a new and cheaper method was introduced to this market, making the Rotex equipment unrivaled in this business. The project management team then decided to cancel this part of the project and to focus instead on chemical absorption studies for PP materials and the impact it would have on the utilization of the shrimp. Extensive studies were begun, but their scope is more than can be accomplished in a small project like this one. An advanced project will be needed to complete this study but the attainment of this study is an important input for further research in this area. The yield in fresh shrimp processed in Kampi have improved for about two percentage points as a result of this project, by using different maturing method for the raw material.

View report

Reports

Nýting öfugkjöftu til vinnslu sjávarafurða / Opportunities in processing Megrim in Icelandic seafood industry

Published:

01/06/2012

Authors:

Vigfús Ásbjörnsson, Einar Matthíasson

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

Nýting öfugkjöftu til vinnslu sjávarafurða / Opportunities in processing Megrim in Icelandic seafood industry

The aim of the project is to lay the foundations for fishing and processing of inverted jaws and to create a basis for economic activity and increased growth based on the utilization of this fish stock. The catchability and price development of inverted jaws in Iceland over months and years were studied. The utilization of the raw material for processing was also studied with the aim of fully utilizing the raw material as much as possible in order to create as much value as possible out of every kg of inverted jaw that arrives in Iceland.

The aim of the project is to analyze and develop knowledge of catching and processing Megrim sole in Iceland and create value from the use of the fish stock. The catching pattern of Megrim sole in Iceland was analyzed depending on years and months in order to recognize the catching pattern over a longer time period as well as the price development on the fishmarket in Iceland. The utilization in land processing of the fish was analyzed with the aim to develop a full utilization method in the land manufacturing process of the fish.

View report

Reports

Utilization of slag with regard to environmental impact

Published:

01/03/2012

Authors:

Ragnheiður Sveinþórsdóttir, Hólmfríður Hartmannsdóttir, Ólafur Ögmundarson

Supported by:

Fisheries Project Fund

Utilization of slag with regard to environmental impact

The aim of the project was to investigate whether the marine environment is utilizing the slag that fishing vessels throw into the sea when fish are gutted on board, also to investigate whether the slag can be utilized profitably and whether it has a more positive effect on nature. The results are that the amount of slag that was released in the experiment anywhere during the experiment and therefore the project fulfilled its goals. However, more research is needed in this area to be able to estimate how much the ocean can absorb without causing problems with organic eutrophication.

View report

Reports

Utilization and composition of lumpfish

Published:

01/02/2012

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Þuríður Ragnarsdóttir, Gunnar Þórðarson

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

Contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Utilization and composition of lumpfish

The results published in this report are part of the project Improved utilization of roe products. In the 2011 season, samples were taken from grayling caught in Húnaflói, Skagafjörður and Skjálfandi. Samples of gutted grayling were also obtained from two companies. The grayling was cut into five parts and individual parts were weighed. The average fillet utilization was 14% of total weight, eggs were 30%, liver 3%, spine 6%, beat 6% and whale along with head and tail 40%. Greenland halibut fillets were high in fat (8-18 g / 100g) but low in protein (8-9 g / 100g). The wave, on the other hand, was low in fat. Roe were particularly selenium-rich, but the heavy metals mercury, cadmium and lead were not measurable.  

Results in this report are part of the project Increasing utilization of lumpfish. Sampling was carried out in March to June 2011 in Húnaflói, Skagafjörður and Skjálfandi. Samples were also obtained from two companies. The lumpfish were cut into five parts and the parts were weighed. Fillets were 14% of lumpfish weight, roe were 30%, liver 3%, spine 6%, viscera 6% and skin together with head and tail 40%. Fillets were rich in fat (8‐18 g / 100g) but low in proteins (8‐9 g / 100g). The skin was however low in fat. Roe were very rich in selenium but the heavy metals mercury, cadmium and lead were below the quantification limits.

View report
EN