Reports

Consumer survey on salted fish

Published:

30/08/2019

Authors:

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Supported by:

AG Fisk, AVS Research Fund

contact

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Sensory evaluation manager

adalheiduro@matis.is

Consumer survey on salted fish

There is a long tradition for processing salted fish in this country, but before that the salt was used primarily to extend the shelf life of the fish. Today, salted fish is considered a gourmet product that is very popular in many parts of the world, not least in Southern Europe, where the traditions and quality of Icelandic salted fish play a major role. Matís ran workshops with salted fish producers and chefs in April and May 2019. Their goal was, among other things, to assess the position of salted fish in the domestic market. It was stated that information was needed on Icelanders' views on salted fish in order to better assess the opportunities in Iceland. Based on the results of the workshops, an online survey was conducted with the aim of researching the image of salted fish products in the minds of Icelanders, general knowledge of salted fish and its history, and the experience of salted fish. The consumption frequency of salted fish, lightly salted fish and night-salted fish was also examined, as well as attitudes towards salted fish compared to lightly salted and night-salted fish. The survey was conducted in May 2019 and was published by 17,000 Facebook users, 18 years and older. A total of 505 people completed the survey.

There was a big difference in the participants' answers according to age. The results show that consumption of both fish and salted fish decreases with decreasing age. Only about 29% participants aged 18-29 eat salted fish once a year or more often than the corresponding proportion for the oldest group, 60-70 years, is about 94%. The main reason why participants do not eat salted fish is that they do not like it. Other reasons are that it is too salty, lack of supply, that there is little tradition for salted fish, and that fresh fish is preferred. In general, attitudes towards salted fish were quite positive and the experience of those who have bought salted fish in a restaurant, fish shop and grocery store was good. However, younger participants are generally more negative about salted fish and more likely to find the taste of salted fish bad than older ones. Knowledge and interest in salted fish also decreases with decreasing age, and the same applies to the purchase frequency of salted fish, lightly salted fish and night-salted fish. The results indicate that the taste of salted fish varies according to age. Older participants are more likely to want salted fish well salted and find it less salty than younger ones.

Saltfish has been intertwined with Icelandic history and food culture for centuries. The results of this survey, however, show declining knowledge, interest and consumption of salted fish in younger age groups. This development can be explained by an increased selection of foods, changed tastes, attitudes and habits. It is likely that the image of salted fish as a quality product will be affected and that great changes are taking place in the consumption of salted fish among Icelanders. In order to promote the consumption of salted fish, it needs to be better promoted and made more visible, not least among younger age groups, whether in canteens, supermarkets, fishmongers or restaurants.

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Reports

Prepared dishes from salted fish

Published:

31/10/2012

Authors:

Gunnþórunn Einarsdóttir, Jón Trausti Kárason

Supported by:

The AVS Fund

Prepared dishes from salted fish

The aim of the project was to develop ready-made salted fish dishes and salted fish buns. By using, among other things, unused raw materials such as cuttings, increased value can be created from seafood. The aim was to sell these products in the Nordic countries, the Spanish market and in Iceland. Ektafiskur has a traditional production of salted fish and no additives are used in the production. Saltfish is a well-known product in Spain and the Nordic countries, and Ektafisk's current products have been well received in both Spain and Iceland. In order to maintain and / or increase its market share, it is necessary for the company to further develop its product line in line with today's consumer demands. Developments in salted fish products have led to greater convenience for consumers in line with changes in lifestyles in recent decades.

The aim of the project was to develop pre-made salt-cod dishes and fishcakes. By using un-utilized raw materials like cut-offs added value can be created. The goal was to market the products developed in this project in the Nordic countries, Spain and in Iceland. Ektafiskur produces traditional salted cod and do not use any additives. Salted cod is a known product in Spain as well as in the Nordic countries. The products from Ektafiskur have been well received both in Spain and Iceland. To maintain and / or increase its market size it is essential that Ektafiskur continue to develop new products with consumer demand in mind. The development of salted cod products has been increasingly towards consumer comfort and changes in life patterns in the last decades.

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Reports

SafeSalt: Quality control of bacalao salt / SafeSalt: Quality control of salted fish salt

Published:

01/09/2012

Authors:

Minh Van Nguyen, Sigurjón Arason, Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

SafeSalt: Quality control of bacalao salt / SafeSalt: Quality control of salted fish salt

The aim of the project was to develop a rapid analysis method to assess the quality of salt used in salted fish production. The aim of the project was to minimize yellowing in salted fish. Experiments with the use of cod liver oil as a substitute for evaluating the fat development of metals showed promising results and it is necessary to transfer the results for cod liver oil to cod fillets. The results indicate that iron has a greater effect on fat development than copper. Emulsion was measured in fat at up to 5 ppm iron concentration in salt. It is necessary to examine the effect of copper and iron on the oxidation of protein in fish.

The objective of the project was to develop rapid test method to evaluate the quality of salt used in the production of heavily salted cod. This is done in order to reduce the risk of yellow discoloration in salted cod. Experiments where cod liver oil was used as surrogate material showed promising results and the next step is to extrapolate these results to cod filets. The results indicate that iron has stronger oxidizing effects on lipids compared to copper. Oxidation of lipids was detected at 5 ppm iron concentration in salt. Future research should aim at investigating the effects of copper and iron on protein oxidation in fish.

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Reports

Production of salted fish in the Nordic countries. Variation in quality and characteristics of the salted products

Published:

01/12/2010

Authors:

Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Ingebrigt Bjørkevoll, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

NORA (Journal No. 510-036)

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Production of salted fish in the Nordic countries. Variation in quality and characteristics of the salted products

The Nordic countries are the largest exporters of salted gadoid products, whereas countries in South ‐ Europe and Latin America are the biggest importers. In Norway, Iceland and Faroe Islands, cod is primarily used for the production. The characteristics of the salted fish, such as commercial quality and weight yield vary between the countries and between producers. These attributes are influenced by differences in catching methods, handling and salting methods. This report summarizes the variation in these procedures, and in addition, the market segmentation of salted products, from the different countries.

The majority of the world's salted fish production takes place within the Nordic countries, but the largest group of consumers is in Southern Europe and South America. Cod is the main raw material, but salted fish is also produced from other related species, such as saithe, ling, haddock and saithe. Properties of salted fish products, such as quality and utilization, vary between countries of production and producers. These variables depend on fishing methods, raw material handling and salting methods. The report is a summary of the variability in these factors between producing countries, as well as an assessment of their share in the salted fish markets.

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Reports

The role and fate of added phosphates in salted cod products / Role and fate of added phosphate in salted fish

Published:

01/07/2010

Authors:

Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Guðjón Þorkelsson

Supported by:

AGS, AVS

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

The role and fate of added phosphates in salted cod products / Role and fate of added phosphate in salted fish

The aim of the project was to evaluate the fate of added phosphate in salted fish. It is clear that its amount decreases with effect and dehydration. The same goes for phosphates that are naturally present in fish muscle. Therefore, the total amount of phosphate in dehydrated products is usually lower than in fresh fish. However, it has been shown that added phosphates (di- and triphosphates) are found in both processed and dehydrated fish. However, it depends on the amount of phosphate added to the product and the salting processes used, ie. whether phosphate was added to the fish by injection or brine. Little or nothing is detected in dehydrated products if brine is used. Differences between processes can be due to the method of salting (spraying / pickling), the type and initial amount of phosphate added and the duration of action. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of different salting processes on the fate of phosphate in salted cod muscles.

The aim of this study was to investigate the fate of added phosphates in salted cod products. The content of both added phosphates and naturally occurring phosphates, decreases during salting and rehydration. The final content in rehydrated fish (approx. 1-2.5% NaCl) is usually below values in the raw fish. However, di- and triphosphates are present both in salted and rehydrated products. The amount depends on the quantity of added phosphates in the product and on the salting procedures applied. It seems that lower contents are present in brined products than in injected products. Differences may depend on the method used for adding phosphates (injection / brining), phosphate type and, initial content of added phosphates in the muscle after pre-salting and finally on the curing time. Further studies are needed to get accurate information on the effects of different salting procedures on the fate of phosphates in salted cod products.

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Reports

Measurements of trace metals in salt, salted fish and insoluble particles in diagnosis of the source of yellow discoloration in salted fish - carried out February to May 2009

Published:

01/08/2009

Authors:

Sigurjón Arason, Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Einar Lárusson, Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Measurements of trace metals in salt, salted fish and insoluble particles in diagnosis of the source of yellow discoloration in salted fish - carried out February to May 2009

Recently, there has been an unusual amount of yellow in salted fish meat, which reduces the quality and value of the production. Salted fish producers have suffered significant financial losses as a result. Salted fish, brine and foreign salt particles were analyzed for iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) to identify the cause. vandans. The concentration of metal was higher in yellow spots of salted fish than in white flesh, and a considerably higher amount of metal was found in brine, which caused yellow compared to other brines. Large amounts of metals were found in salt dust, which means that the dust can affect the formation of yellow spots in salted fish.

Recently several cases of yellow discoloration in salted cod have appeared. This yellow discoloration / yellow spots decreases the quality and value of the product and causes a significant financial damage for the producers. Salted cod, brine and insoluble particles from the salt were analyzed for iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) to investigate the cause of the problem. Metal concentration was higher in yellow spots from the salted cod compared to the white flesh of the cod. The metal concentration was also higher in brine that caused yellow discoloration compared to other brine. Considerable amount of metals were detected in insoluble dust particles from salt indicating that it might be the cause for the yellow discoloration in salted cod.

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Reports

Process control for fishing, processing and processing of salted fish. Impact of raw material variables on the utilization and quality of salted fish

Published:

01/08/2007

Authors:

Lárus Þorvaldsson, Þóra Valsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS, Rannís Technology Development Fund

contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Process control for fishing, processing and processing of salted fish. Impact of raw material variables on the utilization and quality of salted fish

Data was collected from Vísir hf. and Þorbjörn hf. and the relationship between utilization and quality with fishing areas, fishing time, fishing vessels, cooling on board and changes in the processing process are assessed. It was found that fishing areas had a significant effect on processing utilization, but the difference in effect utilization and quality by fishing area was smaller. Fluctuations in efficiency and quality proved to be seasonal and there was also a difference between years. Changes in cooling on board, ie. the use of liquid ice instead of flake ice on board did not prove to have a significant effect in the aforementioned manner. On the other hand, changes in the mechanism of action, ie. injection, both utilization and quality. The content of the report was part of the project "Process management for fishing, processing and processing of salted fish".

Analysis of data collected by the fisheries companies Vísir and Thorfish revealed the effects of fishing grounds, season, fishing vessels, chilling methods on board and salting procedure on yield and quality of salted products. Effects of fishing grounds on processing yield were significant but curing yield and quality were less influenced. Variation in curing yield and quality were seasonal and differences between years were observed. Changes in chilling methods on-board, ie use of liquid ice instead of flake ice did not affect yield and quality of salted products. On the other hand, changes in the salting procedure did, when injection was added as the initial step in the process.

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Reports

Process control for fishing, processing and processing of salted fish. Effects of different salting methods on the effect of cod fillets

Published:

01/07/2007

Authors:

María Guðjónsdóttir, Þóra Valsdóttir, Ása Þorkelsdóttir, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Hannes Magnússon, Sigurjón Arason, Kristín A. Þórarinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS, Rannís Technology Development Fund

contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Process control for fishing, processing and processing of salted fish. Effects of different salting methods on the effect of cod fillets

A comparison was made of the effects of different salting methods on the utilization, quality and other properties of salted cod fillets. One group was only pre-salted but other groups were pre-salted in different ways, ie. by brine salting, spraying and / or pickling. Injured fish had a higher utilization and came out better in quality assessment than uninjected fish. However, the results indicated that the odor and taste of action were higher in unsprayed fish. The effect of phosphate use and spraying on drying properties due to higher water and salt content in products was investigated. It was found that injected fish lost less weight during drying. For the aforementioned reasons, the water content turned out to be higher after drying than in unsprayed fish. The fillets of the dried products varied according to whether the chemical content was based on drying or weight loss on drying. Therefore, the criteria for new salting processes need to be revised and drying processes need to be adapted to the changed properties of salted products.

The effects of different salting processes on yield, quality and other characteristics of salted and cured products were evaluated. Various combinations of salting steps were tested, one group was only dry salted but other groups were first pickle salted, brine injected and / or brine salted. The injected products had higher yield and higher quality than other products. The results indicated that the curing odor and flavor were stronger in products that were not injected. The water and salt content was higher in injected fillets which is important with regard to continuing processes, like drying and rehydration. Measurements during and after drying showed that injection resulted in lower drying rate and higher water content of the fillets. Dried products have been rated in different classes with regard to water content and weight changes during drying. Due to changes in the salting process and drying properties of the salted fish, these reference values have to be reconsidered.

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Reports

Process control for fishing, processing and processing of salted fish. Impact of post-catch cooling on utilization and quality (2)

Published:

01/07/2007

Authors:

Þóra Valsdóttir, Karl Rúnar Róbertsson, Egil Þorbergsson, Sigurjón Arason, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS, Rannís Technology Development Fund

contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Process control for fishing, processing and processing of salted fish. Impact of post-catch cooling on utilization and quality (2)

The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the effect of different cooling methods on board a fishing vessel on the quality and utilization of salted fish in terms of whether the fish was filleted or flattened before processing. There has been different experience with the use of liquid ice, but there have been theories that it has a negative effect on quality and utilization. The use of liquid ice in the train was at least worse in terms of quality and utilization compared to flake ice, whether it was processed fillets or flat fish. Discharge was more pronounced in fillets than in flat fish, but it could not be linked to cooling methods on board.

The aim of the trial was to investigate the effects of different cooling methods onboard a fishing vessel on curing characteristics during heavy salting of cod. The fish was either splitted or filleted before salting. It has been claimed the use of liquid ice for cooling of raw material, may lead to lower yield and quality of the products. The results showed that products from fish stored in liquid ice from catch to processing were similar or better than from fish stored in flake ice. Gaping appeared to be more related to fillets than splitted fish, but this factor could not be linked to chilling methods used onboard.

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Reports

Process control for fishing, processing and processing of salted fish. Effects of different salting methods on the effect of flat fish

Published:

01/07/2007

Authors:

Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Þóra Valsdóttir, María Guðjónsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS, Rannís Technology Development Fund

contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Process control for fishing, processing and processing of salted fish. Effects of different salting methods on the effect of flat fish

Flat cod was processed according to different salting processes in order to assess the effect of pre-salting (injection, pickling and brine salting) and the composition of the injection brine (salt, phosphate, fish protein) on the action properties. Pre-salting improved efficiency and overall utilization at all stages, depending on efficacy, dehydration and drying. Brine was better than brine salting but had the most effect of spraying (followed by brine). All groups were post-salted after pre-salting. Products with added proteins came out best in the quality assessment, ie. higher percentage went in SPIG I than in other groups. Effects on microbial growth and degradation (TVN, TMA, TBA) were not significant. Efficacy characteristics assessed by sensory evaluation were similarly similar for all groups, regardless of the salting method.

Different pre-salting methods (injection, brine salting, pickle salting) were used as the initial step in heavy salting of cod. The effects of brine composition (salt, phosphate, fish proteins) were evaluated. Pre-salting increased yield and quality, brine salting was more effective than pickle salting, but the best results were obtained by injection (followed by brine salting. Dry salted was used as the main salting step for all groups. Higher ratio of products with added proteins were graded as the best class (SPIG I). Effects on microbial growth or formation of degradation compounds (TVN, TMA, TBA) were not significant.Sensory analysis showed that curing characteristics (taste, odor, appearance, texture) were not affected by the salting procedure.

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