Reports

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effects of supercooling on salt and protein injected cod muscles

Published:

01/12/2007

Authors:

María Guðjónsdóttir, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Hannes Magnússon, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

Rannís Research Fund

contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effects of supercooling on salt and protein injected cod muscles

An integrated refrigeration study was performed on the effects of salting, protein injection and subcooling on the quality, chemical and physical properties of salt and protein injected cod muscles. The study shows that by injecting salt and protein into the muscle, utilization can be improved, drip reduced and the boiling efficiency of the muscle increased. On the other hand, the injection of salt and protein into muscles increases microbial growth and the formation of erratic alkalis, thus shortening the shelf life of the product. However, lowering the storage temperature could inhibit the growth of microorganisms and the formation of erratic alkalis. Decreased storage temperature, however, led to cell damage due to ice formation on the surface regardless of the salinity of the muscle. Therefore, it is not considered desirable to store fresh or lightly salted cod muscle at temperatures below -2 ° C. The effect of rinsing the samples in a brine bath after injection was also investigated. Such rinsing did not significantly affect the water and salinity or efficiency of the samples, but showed a reduction in the formation of erratic bases. It is therefore advisable to rinse fillets in brine after injection to prevent damage to the best extent possible. Sensory evaluation results showed that the properties of the muscle changed significantly with the injection of salt and protein into the muscle, but the injected groups lost their freshness characteristics until the fresh untreated control group.

A combined cooling experiment was performed on the effect of salting, protein injection and superchilling on the quality and physicochemical properties of brine and protein injected cod muscle. The study showed that brine and protein injections lead to increased processing and cooking yield, as well as decreased drip. Injection of salt and proteins increase on the other hand microbiological growth and the formation of volatile nitrogen bases, which in turn leads to shorter shelf life. By lowering the storage temperature this growth of microorganisms and volatile nitrogen bases could be decreased. If the storage temperature is kept too low this on the other hand led to cell damages due to ice crystallization on the muscle surface, independent on the salt content of the muscle. It is therefore not recommended to store fresh and light salted cod at temperatures below -2 ° C. The study also viewed the effect of brining the muscle after brine and protein injection. This brining had no significant effect on the salt or water content of the muscle but decreased the amount of volatile bases. It is therefore recommended that cod muscle is always washed in brine after injection to keep damaging processes at a minimum. Sensory analysis showed a significant difference between the characteristics of brine and protein injected samples to unprocessed cod muscle. The injected groups also lost their freshness characteristics earlier than the unprocessed control group.

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Reports

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effects of supercooling, pickling and gas packaging on the physical and chemical properties of cod muscles

Published:

01/12/2007

Authors:

María Guðjónsdóttir, Hannes Magnússon, Sigurjón Arason, Guðrún Ólafsdóttir, Sigurður Bogason

Supported by:

AVS, Rannís Technology Development Fund, Rannís Research Fund

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effects of supercooling, pickling and gas packaging on the physical and chemical properties of cod muscles

An integrated refrigeration study was carried out on the effect of salting, different packaging methods and salting methods as well as the effect of subcooling on the quality and shelf life of cod muscles. The results show that storage is a more desirable salting method than injection salting from a microbiological point of view and with regard to drip and boiling efficiency. However, if the salinity during storage becomes too high, the muscle will gel. In the experiment, it was not considered to improve the quality of the fish to inject proteins into the muscle in addition to the salt. Microbial growth and the amount of wandering alkali decrease with decreasing temperature, so it is desirable to keep the temperature as low as possible, without the fish freezing. At -4 ° C, the surface of the fish in all groups, regardless of salinity, was frozen and the ice crystal formation increased with storage time. This ice crystal formation took place much more slowly at -2 ° C and is therefore considered a desirable storage temperature for lightly salted cod muscles. Air-packed packaging (MAP) also proved to be a more desirable storage method than foam packaging, as microbial growth and increase in erratic base was slower in the MAP packaging, which led to longer shelf life.

A combined cooling experiment was performed upon the effect of salting, different packaging and salting methods as well as the effect of superchilling on the quality and shelf life of cod muscle. The results show that brining is a better salting method that brine injection in terms of bacterial growth as well as increased yield. On the other hand, if the salt concentration becomes too high, gelation of the muscle proteins begins. The study also showed that injection of proteins along with salt injection did not improve the quality of the muscle. Microflora and the formation of volatile nitrogen bases decreased with lowering temperatures. It is therefore preferred to store fish at as low temperatures as possible, without letting the muscle water freeze. At -4 ° C the water at the muscle surface was frozen in all groups, independent of salt content, and the ice crystallization increased with storage time. This crystallization was much slower at -2 ° C and therefore this temperature is recommended for storage of light salted cod muscle. Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) turned out to be a better packaging method than Styrofoam packaging, since the increase in bacterial growth and volatile nitrogen bases was slower in the MAP. This also lead to increased shelf life.

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Reports

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effect of supercooling, pickling and gas packaging on quality changes and shelf life / Storage trials on cod loins: Effect of superchilling, brining and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on quality changes and sensory shelf-life

Published:

01/05/2007

Authors:

Hannes Magnússon, Hélène L. Lauzon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Ása Þorkelsdóttir, Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir, Emilia Martinsdóttir, Guðrún Ólafsdóttir, María Guðjónsdóttir, Sigurður Bogason, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund, Technology Development Fund (Rannís)

contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Shelf life tests on cod pieces: Effect of supercooling, pickling and gas packaging on quality changes and shelf life / Storage trials on cod loins: Effect of superchilling, brining and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on quality changes and sensory shelf-life

The aim of these experiments was to evaluate the effect of supercooling, aerated packaging (MAP) and brine on quality changes and shelf life of cod pieces. The effects of gas packaging and different storage temperatures on the growth of several pathogens and pointing organisms were also investigated. The experiment was carried out in October 2006 at Samherji in Dalvík. After storage (0.6 and 2% salt), the fish was trimmed and the neck pieces were packed in standard 3 kg foam packs (air packs) and in air-conditioned packaging. The gas mixture was adjusted to 50% CO2, 5% O2 and 45% N2. Three pieces (350- 550g) were placed in each tray with a drying mat. After packing, the samples were placed in Matís freezer simulators set at 0 ° C, -2 ° C and -4 ° C. The samples were examined over a four-week storage period. Sensory evaluation, microbial counts and chemical measurements were used to assess quality changes and shelf life. Pickled (2% salt) fish were stored shorter than uncooked (0.6% salt). A comparison of the number of micro-organisms the day after packing showed that the pickled fish contained ten times more cold-resistant micro-organisms than the non-pickled ones. According to sensory evaluation, the shelf life of the pickled fish at -2 ° C was 12-15 days in both air- and gas-packed pieces. In the blunt fish, the effects of gas packaging and supercooling were evident. The shelf life of air-packed pieces was about 11 days at 0 ° C and 14-15 days at -2 ° C. The shelf life of gas-packed pieces, on the other hand, was about 15 days at 0 ° C and about 21 days at -2 ° C. Supercooling of fresh uncooked fish products in air-conditioned packaging can therefore significantly increase shelf life. Gas packing significantly reduced the growth rate of pathogens and microorganisms at low temperatures. Salmonella was most affected, then Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes the least. Under air conditions, L. monocytogenes grew at -2 ° C, but E. coli began to multiply at 5 ° C and Salmonella at 10 ° C.

The aim of these experiments was to evaluate the effect of superchilling, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and brining on the quality changes and sensory shelf-life of cod loins. The effect of MAP and different storage temperatures on some pathogenic and indicator bacteria was also tested. These experiments were initiated in October 2006 at Samherji, Dalvík. After brining (0.6 and 2% salt) the fish fillets were trimmed, and loins packed on one hand in 3 kg styrofoam boxes (air) and on the other in MA. The gas mixture used was 50% CO2, 5% O2 and 45% N2. Three pieces (350-550 g) were placed in each tray with an absorbent mat. After packaging the samples were placed in 3 coolers at Matís which were adjusted to 0 ° C, -2 ° C and -4 ° C. Samples were examined over a four-week period. Sensory analysis, microbial counts and chemical measurements were used to determine the quality changes and shelf-life. Brined loins had a shorter shelf-life than unbrined (0.6% salt). Comparison on numbers of microorganisms the day after packaging revealed that the brined pieces contained ten times more microbes than the unbrined ones. According to sensory analysis the shelf-life of the brined loins at -2 ° C was 12-15 days for both air- and MA-packed fish. In the unbrined loins the effects of superchilling and MAP were obvious. The shelf-life of air-packed loins was about 11 days at 0 ° C and 14-15 days at -2 ° C. The shelf-life of MA-packed loins was about 15 days at 0 ° C but 21 days at -2 ° C. Superchilling of unbrined fish under MA can therefore increase the keeping quality considerably. MA packaging clearly decreased the growth rate of pathogenic and indicator bacteria at low storage temperatures. Most effects were seen with Salmonella, then Escherichia coli but least with Listeria monocytogenes. In fact, L. monocytogenes could grow at -2 ° C under aerobic conditions, while proliferation of E. coli was first observed at 5 ° C but 10 ° C for Salmonella.

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