Reports

Northern Cereals - New Opportunities

Published:

27/05/2016

Authors:

Ólafur Reykdal, Sæmundur Sveinsson, Sigríður Dalmannsdóttir, Peter Martin, Jens Ivan í Gerðin, Vanessa Kavanagh, Aqqalooraq Frederiksen, Jónatan Hermannsson

Supported by:

NORA, the Nordic Atlantic Cooperation. NORA project number 515-005

contact

Ólafur Reykdal

Project Manager

olafur.reykdal@matis.is

Northern Cereals - New Opportunities

A project on grain farming in the Arctic was carried out between 2013 and 2015. The project was funded by the Nordic-Atlantic Co-operation (NORA). Participants came from Iceland, Northern Norway, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Orkney and Newfoundland. The purpose of the project was to support grain farming in sparsely populated Nordic areas by testing different barley crops and providing guidelines for farmers and food companies. The most promising barley crops (Kría, Tiril, Saana, Bere, NL) were tested with all participants and measurements were made on yield and quality. The amount of barley harvest varied between regions and years. The average starch content of dried grain was 58%, which is sufficient for the baking industry. Fungal toxins (Mycotoxin) were not detected in the samples sent for analysis. It was concluded that early grain sowing was the most important factor in promoting a good grain harvest in the NORA area. Unit is important to cut the grain early to prevent losses due to storms and birds.

A project on the cultivation of cereals in the North Atlantic Region was carried out in the period 2013 to 2015. The project was supported by the Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA). Partners came from Iceland, NNorway, Faroe Islands, Greenland, Orkney and Newfoundland. The purpose of the project was to support cereal cultivation in rural northern regions by testing barley varieties and providing guidelines for farmers and industry. The most promising barley varieties (Kria, Tiril, Saana, Bere and NL) were tested in all partner regions for growth and quality characteristics. Grain yields were very variable across the region and differed between years. Average starch content of grain was about 58% which is sufficient for the baking industry. Mycotoxins, toxins formed by certain species of mold, were not detected in selected samples. Early sowing was concluded to be the most important factor for a successful cereal production in the North Atlantic region. Early harvest is recommended in order to secure the harvest before it becomes vulnerable to wind and bird damages, even though the grain will be slightly less mature.

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Reports

Culturing and utilization of marine algae from the sea surrounding Iceland

Published:

01/06/2012

Authors:

Jónína Þ. Jóhannsdóttir, Friðbjörn Möller (student), María Pétursdóttir, Hlynur Ármannsson, Kristinn Guðmundsson, Rannveig Björnsdóttir

Supported by:

Fisheries Project Fund

Culturing and utilization of marine algae from the sea surrounding Iceland

The variability of floating algae is high, but in the sea in the northern hemisphere, diatoms and whip algae are most common. Floating algae have been cultivated in Japan since about 1960 and used to enrich the nutritional content of various foods and thus have a positive effect on the health of both humans and animals. The high levels of omega 3 (ω3) and ω6 fatty acids in cold seaweed also make them an interesting crop. The main goal of the project was to isolate algae from the sea off Iceland and grow them in a laboratory under different conditions. The breeding of 4 species of cold-water algae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Microcysitis sp., Chlorella sp. Has been successfully isolated and maintained. and Dunaliella salina. The fat content and percentage of ω3 fatty acids were highest in P. tricornutum, but the species all contained a relatively high percentage of ω3 fatty acids and were easy to grow, although their growth varied depending on the situation. The results indicate that the fat content and ratio of different fatty acids vary according to growth stages. The results also show that equidae eat Microcystis sp. and Chlorella sp. and therefore it may be interesting to use these species for the enrichment of aquatic animals used as live feed animals in aquaculture of sea larvae in aquaculture. The project has resulted in new projects where work continues on the types of algae that have been successfully grown in pure cultivation. The aim of these studies is, on the one hand, to further develop methods of cultivation with the aim of increasing the proportion of fat and processing fats from algae, and, on the other hand, experiments with the cultivation of the species in wastewater from fish farms. An experiment has also been started in the breeding of cod juveniles with the use of these species of algae in the enrichment of feed animals of larvae.

Phytoplankton is the autotrophic component of the plankton community. Phytoplankton has been cultured since 1960 in Japan for a variety of purposes, including foodstock for other aquacultured organisms and a nutritional supplement. The most abundant groups of microalgae around Iceland are the diatoms and dinoflagelleates. High omega 3 (ω 3) and ω6 fatty acid content in cold water marine algae make them interesting for culturing. The main goal of the project was to search expedient plankton suitable for culturing and investigate the effects of different culture conditions. Four species of cold ‐ water algae have been isolated in monocultures, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Microcysitis sp., Chlorella sp. and Dunaliella salina. P. tricornutum was found to contain the highest fatty acid and content3 content but all species were relatively high in ω3 content and were easy to culture. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition differed with respect to growth stages. The results also indicate that rotifers grazed on Microcystis sp. and Chlorella sp., thereby making them interesting for enrichment of the live prey commonly used in marine aquaculture. The project has resulted in new projects with further studies on the isolated species and developing methods for increasing their fat content, processing methods for extraction of the fat content and culturing using waste water from aquaculture farms. Also, two of the algae species are presently being used for enrichment of the live prey of cod larvae in an ongoing project.

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Reports

Processing qualities of different potato strains

Published:

01/03/2012

Authors:

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson, Jónatan Hermannsson, Þórdís Anna Kristjánsdóttir, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Irek Klonowski

Supported by:

Adaptation Fund of the Horticultural Farmers' Association

contact

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson

Group Leader

valur.n.gunnlaugsson@matis.is

Processing qualities of different potato strains

4 varieties were bred, Annabelle, Milva, Salome and Gullauga. The cultivation took place on Korpa in typical peatlands and Annabelle and Gullauga had a better harvest than the other varieties, in addition to which Gullauga had the highest dry matter content. The varieties came out very differently from the production episode that was carried out at Sölufélagið. Salóme's utilization was by far the best, Gullauga had deep eyes that reduced the utilization, part of Milva was damaged and was sorted out and Önnubelle's shape prevented good utilization. In the consumer survey, participants identified smaller differences between potato varieties than they did in the last survey, and the participants' tastes were different. In general, the Gullauga potatoes came out best in the consumer survey, although the differences between varieties were only significant in appearance. All varieties still appear to be processable after storage at 5.7 ° C for up to 200 days after recording, although some varieties have begun to germinate, albeit to varying degrees. In terms of processing, Milva, Salome and Gullauga all came out well in terms of utilization, but the judging group was most impressed by Gullaugar's taste quality.

Four different strains of potato were tested in processing of precooked potatoes. The strain Salome had best yield, but the strain Gullauga was best liked by consumers, which is in contrast with previous results. All four strains still qualified for processing after storage for almost 200 days at 5.7 ° C, although some strains had started sprouting. The strains Milva, Salome and Gullauga all had good yield, however, group of sensory panelist liked the flavor of Gullauga. 

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Reports

Processing properties of different potato varieties

Published:

01/02/2011

Authors:

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson, Jónatan Hermannsson, Þórdís Anna Kristjánsdóttir, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Vilberg Tryggvason

Supported by:

Adaptation Fund of the Horticultural Farmers' Association

contact

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson

Group Leader

valur.n.gunnlaugsson@matis.is

Processing properties of different potato varieties

4 varieties were grown. Seeds of Belana and Annabelle came from producers abroad, seeds of Premier and Gullauga were obtained from Bergvin at Áshóll. The cultivation took place at Korpa and was primarily a production of raw materials for processing tests, but crop measurements were made. The variants came out very differently from the processing component. The new varieties Annabelle and Belana seem to be quite suitable for processing pre-cooked potatoes, although the "kidney-shaped" shape of Annabelle caused some disappointment, but this shape has not been a problem in previous experiments with this variety. In the consumer survey, participants identified a large difference between potato varieties and the participants' tastes were different. In general, the Annabelle potatoes came out best in the consumer survey.

Four different strains of potato were tested in processing of precooked potatoes. The strain Annabelle was best liked by consumers, but the kidney like shape did cause problems during processing.

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Reports

Experimental production of natural zooplankton and the quality of stored eggs

Published:

01/01/2011

Authors:

Jónína Þ. Jóhannsdóttir, Friðbjörn Möller (student), María Pétursdóttir, Rannveig Björnsdóttir

Supported by:

Fisheries Project Fund, University of Akureyri Research Fund, Student Innovation Fund

Experimental production of natural zooplankton and the quality of stored eggs

The marine gliding community of the sea is very diverse and species-rich, and the glide contains a high proportion of n-3 fatty acids as well as proteins, pigments, wax esters and chitin. In addition to being the natural food of sea fish larvae, plankton contain a high percentage of fatty acids that are suitable for human consumption. For this reason, it is interesting to utilize this source of nutrients by cultivating under controlled conditions on land and accessing all year round. The main goal of the project was to develop methods to maintain the cultivation of Acartia tonsa that was hatched from resident eggs and to cultivate Acartia longiremis from plankton in the sea from Eyjafjörður, as well as to study the hatching rate of eggs after storage. A. longiremis is much more sensitive in all treatments compared to A. tonsa and requires a lower culture temperature. Facilities for the breeding of plankton and algae have been set up at the Matís, HA and Hafró laboratories in Akureyri. Conditions in the laboratory proved to satisfy the needs of both species for growth and maintenance, but the results indicate that better conditions need to be developed for the storage of A. longiremis eggs in order to increase their hatching rate. Results of experiments in which halibut juveniles were fed with Acartia spp. also give evidence of faster growth of halibut larvae and although there was evidence that metamorphosis was somewhat delayed, it seemed to be more successful.

The community of zooplankton includes many species and contains high proportion of n ‐ 3 fatty acids in addition to proteins, wax esters and chitin. Apart from being the natural food for marine larvae, zooplankton includes large quantities of high quality oil suitable for human consumption. It is therefore of importance to utilize this nutritional source by culturing zooplankton at controlled conditions throughout the year. The main goal of the project was to develop methods for maintaining cultures of Acartia tonsa that were hatched from dormant eggs, and to maintain cultures of Acartia longiremis collected from the marine environment in Eyjafjördur. The hatching rate of eggs following storage was furthermore investigated. Facilities for culturing of both zooplankton species and algae at controlled conditions have been set up in the laboratory and A. longiremis proved to be more sensitive to handling and require lower culturing temperatures compared with A. tonsa. Culturing conditions proved to fulfill the needs of the Acartia species for normal development and egg production. The results, however, indicate that conditions during egg storage need to be further developed for improved hatching rate of A. longiremis eggs. Offering Acartia spp. to halibut larvae may have resulted in improved growth and metamorphosis of larvae, however with delayed metamorphosis.  

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Reports

Experimental production of natural zooplankton and the quality of stored eggs

Published:

01/03/2010

Authors:

Jónína Þ. Jóhannsdóttir, Hugrún Lísa Heimisdóttir (student of the University of Akureyri), Friðbjörn Möller, Rannveig Björnsdóttir

Supported by:

Fisheries Project Fund, Student Innovation Fund, University of Akureyri Research Fund

Experimental production of natural zooplankton and the quality of stored eggs

Plankton is the most important food for our juveniles' main fish stocks and redfish is the most common species of plankton in Iceland, but Acartia species can also be found in plankton almost all year round. The aim of the project was to cultivate selected species of natural zooplankton that are common in Iceland (redfish and Acartia) and produce hibernation eggs to ensure its supply all year round. In connection with the project, facilities have been set up for the cultivation of zooplankton and live algae that were used as feed for the plankton. Wild zooplankton has been collected using various methods and breeding experiments performed under different environmental conditions. Experiments have also been performed with the hatching eggs of Acartia tonsa in two separate experiments. The main results indicate that the animals are very sensitive to any kind of treatment as well as temperature changes during collection. There were large losses in the first days after collection and it proved difficult to keep the animals alive for more than a few weeks. Nutrition has a far-reaching effect on animal reproduction, performance and productivity, and the results indicate that the algae concentrate used was not suitable for the cultivation of zooplankton, but much better results were obtained with the use of live algae. The hatching of the laying eggs went well and they managed to get the animals to produce eggs. Subsequently, it is planned to investigate the effects of various factors such as the nutritional content of food, food supply and density on the development, sex ratio and egg production of the animals.

Zooplankton is the food source of our fish stocks, with Calanus finmarchicus being the most abundant species in the marine ecosystem around Iceland in addition to Acartia that may be found in the zooplankton throughout the year. The overall goal of this project was to culture natural zooplankton species (Calanus finmarchicus and Acartia) for production of eggs that is the basis for commercial production of copepods. Facilities for culturing zooplanktonic species and live algae have been set up as part of the project. Natural zooplankton has been collected using various approach and attempts have been made to culture copepods under various conditions. Eggs of Acartia tonsa have furthermore been hatched and cultured in two separate experiments. The main results indicate that zooplankton species are extremely sensitive to handling and temperature changes during collection and transport. Significant losses were observed during the first days following collection and the copepod cultures only survived through a few weeks. Previous studies show that nutrition profoundly affects reproduction, survival and productivity of zooplankton species. The present results indicate that the algae paste used did not fulfill the nutritional requirements of the copepods but improved results were achieved using live algae cultures. Hatching of dormant eggs proved successful and eggs have been collected from the experimental units. Further experiments are planned with the aim to study the effects of nutrition, food supply and copepod densities on the development, sex ratio and productivity of the cultures.

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