Lumpfish is now the single most important cleaner fish species to date and there is an extensive lumpfish translocation along the Norwegian coast. A reliable baseline information about the population genetics structure of lumpfish is a prerequisite for an optimal managing of the species to minimize possible genetic translocation and avoid possible hybridisation and introgression with local populations. The current study is a follow up of the study by Jónsdóttir et al. (2018) using expressed sequence tag-short tandem repeats (EST-STRs) markers. Samples (N = 291) were analyzed from six sample locations along the Norwegian coastline from south to north, with additional 18 samples of first-generation (from wild fish) reared fish from a fish farm outside Tromsø (North Norway). Present findings show a lack of population differentiation among lumpfish sampling population along the Norwegian coast using EST-STRs, which is in accordance with the findings of Jónsdóttir et al. (2018) where genomic STRs (g-STRs) were analyzed. Present findings indicate that should translocated lumpfish escape from salmon sea pens in Norway, this will probably have little impact on the genetic composition of the local lumpfish population.
Full utilization of proteins from Lumpfish
The aim of the project was to develop new protein products from raw materials generated during the processing of grayling eggs. In this way, the aim was to extract even more value from the raw material by producing valuable protein products from grayling. The project examined the development of three products, 1) isolated protein for surimi, 2) dried protein as an additive and 3) hydrolyzed protein as an additive and / or dietary supplement. Protein isolates from grayling meat were difficult to isolate, but the results of bioactivity measurements of products from hydrolyzed proteins are promising for further research.
The aim of the project was to develop new products from lump fish to increase the yield and value of the catch. In the project the aim was to develop three types of products: 1) isolated proteins for surimi, 2) dry proteins as additives and 3) hydrolysed proteins as additives and / or food supplements. The project revealed that protein isolation from lump fish is difficult but hydrolyzed proteins showed promising bioactive properties.
Improved utilization of lumpfish
The Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture's regulation, No. 1083/2010, made it obligatory to bring all grayling catch ashore after 2011. It was therefore necessary to react quickly and find a market for the grayling itself, but only the roe had been harvested and the rest thrown into the sea. . A great deal of entrepreneurship had taken place for several years, and it is worth mentioning the National Association of Small Boat Owners and the export company Triton in that context, which together built up a market for grayling in the Chinese market, with a bang and all. It should be noted that the roe is about 30% by the weight of the grayling, while the whale with the head and tail is about 55%, of which the fillets are only 14% of its total weight. There was a lot of work to be done and it is clear that there is great value in this underutilized fish species and great opportunities would be created in many coastal settlements for the production and export of grayling. At the same time, increased income for fishermen and the fishing industry, as well as the fact that the grayling was now mostly brought ashore, which created a lot of work for production parties. Cutting for the Chinese market is different from the traditional method and requires more complex procedures, but it requires better working conditions that do not exist on board small fishing boats. There was little information on the chemical and nutritional content of grayling, but such information is necessary when marketing products. A detailed report was prepared on the material and raw materials are used in many parts of the country. Shelf life tests were performed on frozen grayling. A conference was held in Patreksfjörður where stakeholders in the fishing, processing and export of grayling were invited to discuss the interests of the industry.
A new regulation from Minister of Fisheries and Agriculture, No. 1083/2010, require returning all lumpfish fished in Iceland, after 2011. A quick action had to be taken to find markets for lumpfish itself, but only the roes which have been processed but the rest of the fish have been discarded into the sea. With entrepreneurial activity for some years now new markets have been developed in China, by the National Association of Small Boat Owners in Iceland in cooperation with the export company Triton. It should be noted that the roes are only about 30% of the total weight of lumpfish, with head and tail about 70% of its total weight. There was much to be done to save value in the lumpfish business and great opportunities for small communities relying on this business and find a market for the lumpfish product and create extra value for stakeholders. Furthermore, increased income for fishermen and fishing communities by creating valuable work by processing the fish at shore. Gutting and trimming the lumpfish for the China market is different from the traditional approach and calls for more sophisticated self-administration, but it requires better working conditions that do not exist on board small fishing boats. Very little information on chemical composition and nutrient value has been available for lumpfish products. An in-depth report on this subject was prepared, using samples from different regions in Iceland. Self ‐ life experiments were prepared by this project. A work shop was held in Patreksfjordur in May 2013, with stakeholders from the lumpfish business participating.
Utilization and composition of lumpfish
The results published in this report are part of the project Improved utilization of roe products. In the 2011 season, samples were taken from grayling caught in Húnaflói, Skagafjörður and Skjálfandi. Samples of gutted grayling were also obtained from two companies. The grayling was cut into five parts and individual parts were weighed. The average fillet utilization was 14% of total weight, eggs were 30%, liver 3%, spine 6%, beat 6% and whale along with head and tail 40%. Greenland halibut fillets were high in fat (8-18 g / 100g) but low in protein (8-9 g / 100g). The wave, on the other hand, was low in fat. Roe were particularly selenium-rich, but the heavy metals mercury, cadmium and lead were not measurable.
Results in this report are part of the project Increasing utilization of lumpfish. Sampling was carried out in March to June 2011 in Húnaflói, Skagafjörður and Skjálfandi. Samples were also obtained from two companies. The lumpfish were cut into five parts and the parts were weighed. Fillets were 14% of lumpfish weight, roe were 30%, liver 3%, spine 6%, viscera 6% and skin together with head and tail 40%. Fillets were rich in fat (8‐18 g / 100g) but low in proteins (8‐9 g / 100g). The skin was however low in fat. Roe were very rich in selenium but the heavy metals mercury, cadmium and lead were below the quantification limits.
Lumpfish production in the Westfjords
From the year 2012, it will be obligatory to bring all grayling catch ashore according to the new regulation of the Ministry of Fisheries, no. 1083/2010. The project "Grayling, value from underutilized raw materials" is intended to strengthen the economy in the Westfjords by developing the processing of grayling products for export. The most suitable methods must be found for handling the raw material on board boats, in land processing, during transport and storage. Revenues increase in coastal areas and the more so as more and more of the grayling's by-products are sold. It is important that product development takes place to maximize revenue. Utilization of by-products of grayling contributes to increased employment in the coastal areas of the Westfjords. The occupation is related to handling catches, gutting, cleaning, packing, freezing and transport.
From the year 2012 it will be required to bring the whole lumpfish catch to shore, under a new regulation from the Minister of Fisheries and Agriculture, No. 1083/2010. The project "Lumpfish, the value of underutilized species" is intended to support economic activity in the West-fjords by developing processing methods for lumpfish export. The aim is also to find the most suitable methods for handling the raw material on board the fishing vessels, at the processing side, and through storage and transport. Income will increase at coastal areas by more product landed and more extra production and export. Further product development is important to maximize revenue. Utilization of lumpfish by‐products contributes to increased employment in West‐fjords costal areas. Jobs related to handling of catch, gutting, cleaning, packing, freezing and transportation.
Procedures on board lumpfish vessels
The main purpose of the project "Grasshopper, value from underutilized raw materials" is to create employment in the Westfjords following the decision of the Minister of Fisheries to oblige grayling fishermen to bring all catch, including gutted grayling, ashore from the year 2012. In connection with the project It was decided to conduct a survey of how the West Fjords grayling fleet was prepared to deal with new demands, and what the shipowners' attitudes were to changes in the working environment. Shipowners were interviewed in Stöndur, by Djúp and in the south of the Westfjords. The interviews were based on a questionnaire which, among other things, sought information about current equipment, what changes had followed new rules and their attitudes towards change. Special emphasis was placed on attitudes towards gutting at sea or on land and the shipowners' ideas about prices for the grayling after roe collection.
The main purpose of the project "Lumpfish, the value of underutilized species" is to create jobs in the Westfjords following the decision of the minister of fisheries that lumpfish fishermen must bring the whole catch, including head/skin and fillets of lumpfish ashore, on and after coming fishing season of 2012. In connection with the project it was decided to carry out a survey of capability of the lumpfish fleet of Westfjords to meet the new requirements, and to seek ship owner's attitude to inevitable changes due to new regulation. A list of questions was used for the survey to underline the current situation in the fishing fleet and fishing captains attitude to further steps to be taken in a changed environment. Special emphasis was on their attitude to gutting lumpfish on board the boats or at factories ashore, and their idea of price for the lumpfish after collecting the roes.