Reports

Increased quality and stability of frozen herring products

Published:

30/08/2019

Authors:

Magnea Karlsdóttir, Huong Thi Thu Dang, María Guðjónsdóttir, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS R&D Fund

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Increased quality and stability of frozen herring products

Freezing and frozen storage has proven to be an effective method to preserve and prolong the storage life of seafood products. Production of frozen products provides all year around product availability although the catching is seasonal. There are several factors that can affect the quality and stability of frozen fish products, including the state of the raw material, processing methods and storage conditions.

The aim of the study was to explore how the physicochemical properties of frozen herring fillets are affected regarding the state of the raw material during processing as well as storage conditions. Atlantic herring was processed and frozen pre- and post-rigor and stored at stable (-25 ° C) and abused storage conditions. To investigate the storage stability and physical properties of the fillets, thawing drip, cooking yield and color were evaluated, as well as proximate composition, fatty acid composition, pH and lipid degradation of the light and the dark muscle.

The study demonstrated the importance of stable and controlled temperature during storage and transportation of frozen herring products. Processing and freezing pre-rigor, in combination with stable storage conditions, was shown to be beneficial in terms of preventing lipid oxidation, as well as reducing thawing loss and maintaining the cooking yield of the herring fillets.

View report

Reports

Increased quality and stability of frozen herring products

Published:

01/11/2018

Authors:

Magnea Karlsdóttir, Huong Thi Thu Dang, María Guðjónsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Ásbjörn Jónsson

Supported by:

AVS R&D Fund (R 069-14)

contact

Sigurjón Arason

Chief Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Increased quality and stability of frozen herring products

Freezing and cold storage is an effective method of maintaining quality and extending the shelf life of seafood. The production of frozen products equals the supply of products where fishing is seasonal. There are many factors that can affect the quality and stability of frozen products. These include the condition of the raw material, processing methods and conditions for storage and transport, to name but a few. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes that take place in the chemical and physical properties of frozen herring fillets with regard to the condition of raw materials during processing and conditions in cold storage. Atlantic herring was processed before and after death solidification, and the fillets were stored under stable storage conditions (-25 ° C) and unstable conditions (at -25 ° C for 2 months, then -12 ° C for one month and then again at - 25 ° C for the duration of storage). To study the stability and physical properties of the products, water loss (drip), boiling efficiency and color were measured, in addition to which both light and dark fish muscles were measured for water resistance, pH, chemical composition, fatty acid composition, enzyme activity and evolution. The study showed that it is important for the fishing industry to ensure uniform and correct temperature control when products are stored in the freezer. Processing and freezing before death solidification, in parallel with stable storage conditions, has a positive effect on the quality and stability of herring falcons. In addition, the study confirmed that the fatty state of the herring muscle, often referred to as the dark muscle, is very sensitive to development. In order to extend the shelf life of frozen herring fillets, it is recommended that this muscle be removed in parallel with deep skinning.

Freezing and frozen storage has proven to be an effective method to preserve and prolong the storage life of seafood products. Production of frozen products provides all year around product availability although the catching is seasonal. There are several factors that can affect the quality and stability of frozen fish products, including the state of the raw material, processing methods and storage conditions. The aim of the study was to explore how physicochemical properties of frozen herring fillets are affected with respect to the state of the raw material during processing as well as storage conditions. Atlantic herring was processed and frozen pre- and post-rigor and stored at stable (-25 ° C) and abused storage conditions. To investigate the storage stability and physical properties of the fillets, thawing drip, cooking yield and color were evaluated, as well as proximate composition, fatty acid composition, pH and lipid degradation of the light and the dark muscle. The study demonstrated the importance of stable and controlled temperature during storage and transportation of frozen herring products. Processing and freezing pre-rigor, in combination with stable storage conditions, was shown to be beneficial in terms of preventing lipid oxidation, as well as reducing thawing loss and maintaining the cooking yield of the herring fillets.

View report

Reports

The effect of rigor mortis on fillet quality

Published:

01/10/2016

Authors:

Gunnar Þórðarson, Albert Högnason, Anton Helgi Guðjónsson

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R 16 014-16)

contact

Gunnar Þórðarson

Regional Manager

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

The effect of rigor mortis on fillet quality

The purpose of the study was, on the one hand, to investigate the effects of supercooling on freezing and comparing it to conventional refrigeration, and on the other hand to prepare promotional material that could be used to introduce stakeholders in the fisheries sector to the importance of controlling the freezing process. A study was carried out on cod and salmon and it was carried out at two different seasons for cod, but there can be great differences in the condition of the raw material depending on when and where the fish is caught. The study was twofold in that, on the one hand, data were obtained on the effect of cooling on the death solidification process, where the groups were compared; supercooled and traditional, and on the other hand to interpret the results for promotional material. Supercooling in cod is based on cooling down to -0.8 ° C and salmon at -1.5 ° C, while conventional cooling is based on 0 ° C for both species. Differences between groups were examined as well as comparing differences within groups. Small differences within groups indicate a more accurate and credible conclusion. The results show that there is a large difference in the contraction of the fish muscle when it goes through the freezing process, depending on whether it is supercooled or conventional cooling is used. It can be concluded that there is a great quality benefit in the use of supercooling for death stiffness, which reduces contraction and consequently reduces tension between muscles and spine. With too fast and too much contraction of the death stiffness, the muscle can easily be damaged, such as loosening, the stiffness of the fillets decreases, etc.

The purpose of this project was to study the effect of superchilling on rigor mortis process and compare it to traditional chilling with ice. Also to prepare promotional material to enlighten the fishery industry on the importance of managing the process of rigor mortis for product quality. A study was conducted on cod and salmon, including seasonality effect on rigor mortis for cod. The definition on sub chilling in this study is; for cod it is based on cooling to -0.7 ° C and for salmon down to -1.5 ° C and for traditional chilling by ice is targeted at 0 ° C for both species. The rigor process was studied between groups, sub-chilled and traditional, and within groups to investigate standard deviation between samples to sample credibility of outcome. The results indicate a large difference in the contraction process on whether the fish is super chilled or traditional cooling used. The conclusion of the study indicates that sub chilling, which reduces the contraction and consequently the tension between muscle and backbone in the process, can have a large effect on fillet quality, less gaping and a firmer product.

View report

Reports

Research of superchilling of whitefish / Research of superchilling of whitefish

Published:

01/10/2014

Authors:

Gunnar Þórðarson, Albert Högnason, Hólmfríður Sveinsdóttir

Supported by:

Westfjords Growth Agreement

contact

Gunnar Þórðarson

Regional Manager

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

Research of superchilling of whitefish / Research of superchilling of whitefish

Five studies were conducted by a research team (supercooling team) in the summer of 2014 to test the effect of supercooling on the processing and product quality of whitefish. This project was based on foreign scientific research on supercooling, which was carried out in laboratories, while the research of the supercooling team was carried out under processing conditions. The results of the research team indicate even more activity than the basic research on which it was based. The main drawbacks were that with supercooling immediately after bleeding and gutting, death stiffness can be significantly delayed, but no damage processes begin until it is completed. It is known that the main reasons for release are rapid death stiffness as the flesh tears with a rapid contraction that clashes with the fish's bone marrow. Fish is 800 times more sensitive than meat and therefore it can withstand very little damage during handling. The results of the supercooling team's research show that during supercooling, the flesh hardens without freezing and withstands all treatments much better, such as filleting, peeling and trimming. Not only is there a difference in the appearance of super-chilled fillets compared to traditional ones, but the proportion of those who went for the most expensive packages was significantly higher. An experiment was carried out at Íslandssaga in Suðureyri and the result was that the increased value due to supercooling was around ISK 900,000 per day. When processing super-chilled fillets for fresh fish export, they were returned in packages at -0.8 ° C while traditional processing was at +2 to + 5 ° C. Freezing part of water in fillets (5‐30%) builds up a high cooling energy that maintains a low temperature throughout the processing (filleting, skinning and trimming). The results of the research team are that with supercooling on board a fishing vessel down to -1 ° C immediately after bleeding and gutting, the use of ice becomes unnecessary for storage in trains and warehouses on land. Trains and cold rooms will be operated at 11 ° C, which is sufficient to maintain supercooling for a long time. Attempts were made to store cod under these conditions for eight days, and the results of research showed that its quality during processing at Fisk Seafood was high and better than with traditional processing.

Five studies were conducted by a research team (superchill ‐ team) in the summer of 2014 to test the effects of superchilling on production and quality of whitefish. This project was based on published studies on superchilling, conducted in laboratories, but the superchill ‐ team conducted their study at industrialized conditions. Conclusion of the research team suggests greater functionality than the scientific researches it was based on. The main conclusion are that super ‐ chilling right after bleeding and gutting can significantly delay rigor mortis, but no spoilage take place before that process. It is well known that the main reasons for gaping in fish fillets are the contraction and relics causing by rigor mortis. Fish is 800 times more sensitive than meat, so it is perishables against handling in processing lines, like filleting, skinning and trimming. One finding in these research is that by super chilling the fish before the process, the flesh is more stiff without being frozen, and can withstand handling in processing much better. The super chilled product is not only looking better compared to the traditional product, but the proportion of more valuable products were significantly higher. A research made in the freezing plant Icelandic Saga in Sudureyri, gave a result were increased value due to super cooling was about 900 thousand ISK per day. In the same trial a temperature for fresh packed fillets for the British market, the product temp for super chill were ‐0,8 ° C, but the traditional product were packed at +2 to +5 ° C. Freezing part of the water content of the fish, around 5‐30%, builds up a massive cooling energy that keeps low temperatures throughout the processing (filleting, skinning and trimming). Results of the research team were thatsuper ‐ cooling fish on board a fishing vessel, down to ‐1 ° C immediately after bleeding and gutting make the use of ice in fish hold redundant. The fish hold need to be run at ‐1 ° C which is sufficient to maintain the super ‐ cooling for a long time. The research team kept whole cod without ice for eight daysin container and ‐1 ° C, with demanding result and extremely good product quality, significantly better than the traditional process.

Report closed until 01.11.2016

View report

Reports

Effects of additives and different salting methods on the utilization and quality of farmed cod products / Effects of additives and different salting methods on yield and quality of farmed cod products

Published:

01/11/2011

Authors:

Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Hannes Magnússon, Kristján G. Jóakimsson, Sveinn K. Guðjónsson

Supported by:

AVS (R 11 006‐010)

contact

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Sensory evaluation manager

adalheiduro@matis.is

Effects of additives and different salting methods on the utilization and quality of farmed cod products / Effects of additives and different salting methods on yield and quality of farmed cod products

The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of salting methods and brine composition on the utilization and quality of products processed from farmed cod before freezing to death. Fillets were either injected or injected and pickled. The brine was of different salinity, in addition to which the use of polyphosphate and a mixture of citrate and ascorbate was examined. Changes in utilization, water content, water resistance and quality were monitored over a 9-month period in frost. The results of the project show that it is possible to increase salt uptake and weight changes of fillets by changing processing processes even though the fish has not died of freezing. There was a definite difference in efficacy symptoms in the first 3 months depending on whether the fillets were only injected or injected and pickled. With longer storage, the difference between the groups decreased. At the beginning of storage, factors that characterize fresh products were prominent, but as the storage period progressed, factors such as cold storage odor, freezing taste, craving and tableware odor became more prominent. The use of phosphate and a mixture of citrate and ascorbate appeared to be able to reduce the development to some extent according to the results for TBARS, but the effect was not found in color measurements or sensory evaluation. 

The aim of experiments was to investigate the effects of different salting methods and brine composition on yield and quality of products, processed from pre ‐ rigor farmed cod. Fillets were either injected or injected and brined. Different brine concentrations were used, as well as polyphosphates and a mixture of citrate and ascorbate. Changes in yield, water content, water retention and quality of the products were followed over 9 months period of frozen storage. Results show that it is possible to increase the salt uptake and weight changes of the fillets by altering processing procedures for the pre ‐ rigor fish. The curing characteristics of the products depended on salting methods, ie if the fillets were only injected or injected and brine salted before freezing, especially during the first 3 months. Longer storage time reduced the difference between the groups. At the beginning of the storage, freshness characteristics were strong but during storage attributes like frozen odor and taste, rancid taste and dish cloth odor become predominant. Oxidation was reduced by use of phosphate and the mixture of citrate and ascorbate, as indicated by lower TBARS ‐ values. However, the effect was neither detected in results from color measurements nor sensory analysis.

Report closed until 01.01.2015

View report

Reports

Processing and quality control of farmed cod

Published:

01/04/2009

Authors:

Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson, Guðrún Anna Finnbogadóttir, Kristján Jóakimsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS R26-06 / AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland

contact

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson

Group Leader

valur.n.gunnlaugsson@matis.is

Processing and quality control of farmed cod

The report is a summary of the results of the project "" Processing and quality control of farmed cod "which was carried out in collaboration between HG and Matís. Ways were sought to develop traditional methods for the production of fresh, frozen and lightly salted products so that they could be used for farmed fish. The aim of the project was to provide products from farmed cod with valuable and varied products that met the quality requirements of the market. Processing of farmed cod must be carried out before death. Otherwise there is a risk that the formation will be so great that the products will in the worst case be unsaleable. Chilled and loose-frozen products are of comparable quality to products made from wild cod. However, the properties are not the same and this is reflected in the taste and texture properties, among other things. Wild cod is coarser and often juicier, but farmed cod has a more meaty and stuttering texture and is sweeter in taste. Processing for death solidification means that traditional salting processes for farmed fish cannot be used. In light salting, methods such as injection and prolongation of the pickling time can be used to reduce the negative effects of lethal stiffness on uptake during normal course of action. Salting and temperature conditions need to be very well controlled to minimize the risk of microbial growth as very low salinity is used in the production of lightly salted (2% salt) products.

This report summarizes the results from the project "Processing and quality control of farmed cod" where processing and salting methods for farmed cod were developed in co-operation of HG (HradfrystihusidGunnvor Ltd) and Matís ohf. The main difference in processing of farmed and wild cod is that farmed cod has to be processed before rigor mortis. Otherwise there is a high risk of gaping and quality defects in products that are not accepted by markets. Chilled and IQF products processed from pre-rigor farmed cod were of similar quality as products from wild cod. However, farmed cod products have different properties, they have a sweeter taste and more "meaty" and firmer texture than products from wild cod which are softer and juicier. Processing of farmed cod before rigor retards weight increase and salt uptake during light salting. The effects of rigor can be reduced using brine injection and increasing brining time from traditional processed for farmed cod. Salting conditions and temperature must be carefully controlled during the process to avoid microbial growth at the low salt levels used in production of light salted (2% NaCl) products.

View report

Reports

Comparison of wild and farmed cod muscle characteristics

Published:

01/12/2008

Authors:

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson, Guðrún Anna Finnbogadóttir, María Guðjónsdóttir, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Hannes Magnússon, Kristján Jóakimsson, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS R26-06 / AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland

contact

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson

Group Leader

valur.n.gunnlaugsson@matis.is

Comparison of wild and farmed cod muscle characteristics

The aim of the project was to make a comparison of the properties of cod products made from wild cod before and after dead-freezing and farmed cod before dead-freezing. Also experiment with storage in sludge, ice spray on brine and supercooling (-2.4 ° C) on farmed fish to investigate how the properties of the flesh change with different treatment. Mortality stiffness had a significant effect on weight gain and salt uptake during injection and storage. The uptake of pre-rigor samples was rather low while the uptake of post-rigor wild cod was significant. The pre-rigor fish had less than 5% uptake after pickling, while the wild post-rigor had almost 9% uptake. A similar pattern was seen after injection, where the longest uptake was obtained in wild post-rigor fish or 16.5%. The salinity of most samples ranged from 0.3-0.4%. No significant difference was observed between unsalted samples. In the saline-salted groups, there was only salt uptake in wild cod that was injected after death. On the other hand, salt intake in fish injected before death was insignificant and applied to both wild and farmed cod. The water content was higher in wild cod compared to farmed cod and also spray salting led to a higher water content. Measurements from NMR measurements indicated that there was a difference in the mobility of water molecules and the possible location of water, but this can affect the water - holding properties of the muscle. The fish fillets generally performed well in traditional quality assessments, whether they were injected fillets or untreated fillets. Discharges did not increase as much during the storage period as expected, although considerable discharges were made into the pre- and wild post on the thirteenth day of storage. In previous experiments, the color of farmed fish products has been very white, despite the fact that they have become unusable. On the other hand, yellow cod products turn yellow with shelf life. The results of this experiment did not confirm this difference between farmed cod and wild cod.

There was a great difference in the sensory properties of farmed cod and wild cod after boiling, primarily in texture where wild groups were much thicker, more mushy and softer. Breeding groups had a meaty mouth effect, were more gummy and stuttering, in addition to having a sweeter taste and a much more meaty taste and smell. Storage temperature generally had the effect of producing earlier symptoms of damage in products stored at + 1 ° C compared to -2.4 ° C. The shelf life of farmed cod stored at -2.4 ° C was at least 5 days longer than that of a comparable group stored at + 1 ° C. The effect of storage temperature was also observed in the number of microorganisms, which together with the injection salting led to a larger number of microorganisms. However, there was little difference in products in terms of whether processing took place before or after death solidification. The research was part of the project "Processing and quality control of farmed cod, more specifically a summary for work components 2 and 4.

Production of farmed cod is increasing rapidly, but quality appraisals show that farmed cod has different characteristic from wild cod. These different characteristics make traditional production methods not suitable for farmed cod and therefore it is necessary to analyze those characteristics and adjust production methods especially for farmed cod. Matis ohf has been involved in farmed cod research from its foundation and the company built its foundation on the work which was done by its predecessors. The aim of this project was to look at these different characteristics between farmed and wild cod, pre and post rigor. The aim was also to do experiments with injection of brine and superchilling (-2.4 ° C) and detect the impact of different methods. NMR was used to analyze difference in longitudinal relaxation time (T1), between the samples, farmed cod had lower values for T1 than wild one. Therefore the mobility of water indicates difference in structure between the samples. High levels of glycogen are usually found in farmed cod which results in sharp fall of pH after slaughter. This low pH affects texture, because of collagen degradation which results in gap formation. The low pH also affects water holding capacity of the farmed cod. Measurements have shown higher pH in wild cod and this difference continues through low temperature storage. Texture measurements after 2 days storage indicates that farmed cod is lower in firmness than wild one, regardless of whether the fish is filleted pre- or post rigor. Sensory panels have also detected difference between wild and farmed cod. Wild cod is more tender and mushier, while the farmed one has more meaty texture, is more rubbery and has a clammy texture. Also the farmed fish has sweeter taste and more meaty taste and smell. Farmed cod is different from wild cod in many aspects. Therefore it is necessary to know those aspects and adjust processes especially for production of consumer goods from farmed cod.

Report closed until December 2011 / Report closed until December 2011

View report

Reports

Comparison of properties of farmed cod and wild cod in loose freezing / Effects of freezing on muscle properties of wild and farmed cod fillets

Published:

01/12/2008

Authors:

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson, María Guðjónsdóttir, Guðrún Anna Finnbogadóttir, Kristján Jóakimsson, Sigurjón Arason

Supported by:

AVS R26-06 / AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland

contact

Valur Norðri Gunnlaugsson

Group Leader

valur.n.gunnlaugsson@matis.is

Comparison of properties of farmed cod and wild cod in loose freezing / Effects of freezing on muscle properties of wild and farmed cod fillets

A comparison was made of the effects of freezing on different cod fillets. The raw material was farmed pre rigor cod and wild pre and post rigor cod. It was also investigated how fillets sprayed with brine came out of the freezer. The results showed that freezing did not in any way reduce the quality of these products. They performed well in quality assessment, emissions did not increase in samples and there was little or no change in the chemical content of these samples. The products all came out well from the freezing, whether it was farmed fish or wild fish and what treatment he received during the slaughter process.

The research was part of the project "Processing and quality control of farmed cod, more specifically a summary for work component 6.

In this project phase the aim was to look at effect of freezing on cod fillets from wild and farmed cod in different rigor stages. The goal was also to evaluate effects of brine injecting on the quality of the product after freezing and thawing. The results indicated that the freezing process did not affect the quality of those products. The quality assessment and chemical measurements did not indicate negative changes during freezing and thawing. All the samples got good results, both farmed and wild cod samples and the brine injection did not affect the quality of frozen products.

Report closed until December 2011 / Report closed until December 2011

View report
en_GBEnglish