Reports

Development of QIM and shelf life of fresh mackerel (Scomber scombrus) / Development of QIM and shelf life of fresh mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

Published:

01/03/2012

Authors:

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Elvar Steinn Traustason, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund (R 11 037‐010)

Contact

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Sensory evaluation manager

adalheiduro@matis.is

Development of QIM and shelf life of fresh mackerel (Scomber scombrus) / Development of QIM and shelf life of fresh mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

The aim of the project was to examine changes that occur in mackerel during ice storage. Develop a QIM scale for fresh mackerel and compare it with the results of cooked fish assessments and QDA (quantitative descriptive analysis) to determine the end of shelf life. Based on QDA results, it can be concluded that mackerel stored for 9 days on ice has reached the limit of shelf life. Taste and odor symptoms (fresh oil) are then reduced and damage symptoms (cravings and bitterness) take over.

The aim of the project was to look at the changes in mackerel at storage on ice. Develop a QIM spectrum for fresh mackerel and compare with cooked fish, QDA (quantitative descriptive analysis) to decide maximum shelf life. From the QDA results, one can conclude that maximum shelf life for fresh mackerel is 9 days on ice. At that time freshness in taste and odor are decreasing and characteristic of spoilage (rancidity and bitter) dominates.

View report

Reports

Germicidal effects of UV light on processing line surfaces and pork shelf life / Effect of UV light on microbial contamination of processing surfaces and shelf life of pork products

Published:

01/12/2011

Authors:

Sveinn Magnússon, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Viggó Marteinsson

Supported by:

Technology Development Fund

Contact

Viggó Marteinsson

Research Group Leader

viggo@matis.is

Germicidal effects of UV light on processing line surfaces and pork shelf life / Effect of UV light on microbial contamination of processing surfaces and shelf life of pork products

The antimicrobial effect of UV radiation has been known for a long time, but UV radiation at 254nm (UV ‐ C) causes damage to the genetic material of cells and prevents microbial growth. The use of UV lighting for disinfection has increased, for example in the food industry - where UV radiation can be used to disinfect processing surfaces and food - thereby increasing safety and extending the shelf life of food. This report describes a test of the effect of UV exposure on the processing surface on the shelf life of meat products. The effect of UV exposure on the surface of meat processing - the conveyor belt and cutting board - on the shelf life of pork products was examined. The results of the study show that UV exposure has the effect of reducing the microbial content of processing surfaces. The results regarding the effect on shelf life were not decisive, but indicate that with a clean processing line and UV lighting on the processing surface, the shelf life of pork products from the processing line can be increased.

UV radiation at 254nm (UV ‐ C) causes damage to the genetic material of cells and prevents microbial growth. The use of UV light for disinfection is increasing eg in the food production industry - where UV radiation can be used for disinfection of food production surfaces and foods - and thereby increase food safety and extend product shelf life. This report describes the testing of the effects of UV lighting on surfaces in food processing facility on product shelf life. Effects of UV lighting on process line surfaces - conveyor belt and cutting boards - on the shelf life of pork was examined. The results of the study show that UV reduces the bacterial load on process line surfaces. Regarding the effects on pork shelf life the results were not significant but suggest that cleaner process lines and UV lighting on process line surfaces can increase the shelf life of pork products.

Report closed until 01.01.2014 / Report closed until 01.01.2014

View report

Reports

Effect of cooling and packaging methods on the quality deterioration of redfish fillets

Published:

01/09/2011

Authors:

Hélène L. Lauzon, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Björn Margeirsson, Sigurjón Arason, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

EU IP Chill ‐ on (contract FP6‐016333‐2)

Contact

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Sensory evaluation manager

adalheiduro@matis.is

Effect of cooling and packaging methods on the quality deterioration of redfish fillets

The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of slush ice cooling after filleting and / or packing in vacuum packaging on the deterioration of the quality of fresh redfish fillets. The fillets were stored at -1 ° C for 6 days to simulate well-executed sea transport in foam plastic boxes and then at 2 ° C, as happens after delivery abroad and storage in retail. Product and ambient temperature were monitored from packaging and sensory evaluation, microbial and chemical measurements were performed. The fish was caught in the spring and processed 6 days after fishing. The results show that the quality of the raw material was not the best during packaging as the development process (PV and TBARS) was well underway. This probably explains why none of these refrigeration methods led to an increase in shelf life. It was also found that there was no benefit in cooling the fillets unprotected in slush ice as the microbial growth and formation of TVB-N and TMA in the fillets was faster with further storage. However, it seems preferable to refrigerate vacuum packed fillets in ice cream as this method has led to slower growth of pest microorganisms, lower TMA levels and a slower development process. Photobacterium phosphoreum is important in the process of damaging fresh redfish fillets, regardless of the packaging method.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of slurry ice cooling in process (post ‐ filleting) and packaging method (+/‐ oxygen) on the quality deterioration of skinned redfish fillets during storage in expanded polystyrene boxes simulating well ‐ performed sea freight transportation (6 days at ‐1 ° C) followed by storage at the retailer (2 ° C). Also, to assess the use of vacuum ‐ packaging to protect the fillets from direct contact with the cooling medium (slurry ice) and to achieve superchilling following extended treatment. Temperature monitoring as well as sensory, chemical and microbial analyzes were performed. The fish was caught in the spring and processed 6 days post catch. The results show that quality of the fillets was not optimal at packaging, due to the detection of primary and secondary oxidation products. This may have been the reason why shelf life extension was not achieved by any of the methods evaluated. Further, there was no advantage of cooling the fillets unpacked since this method stimulated microbial growth and formation of basic amines. On the other hand, slurry ice cooling of vacuum ‐ packaged fillets led to a slower microbial development, the lowest TMA level and delayed autoxidation. Finally, the importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum in the spoilage process of redfish fillets, independently of the packaging method, was demonstrated.

View report

Reports

Effect of temperature control on the efficiency of modified atmosphere packaging of cod loins in bulk

Published:

01/06/2011

Authors:

Hélène L. Lauzon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Björn Margeirsson, Emilia Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

EU IP Chill ‐ on (contract FP6‐016333‐2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Effect of temperature control on the efficiency of modified atmosphere packaging of cod loins in bulk

The aim of the experiment was to compare the freshness, quality and shelf life of sub-chilled (CBC) cod necks in air storage and in aerated packages (MAP) at controlled temperatures to simulate temperature fluctuations during transport and distribution in the European market. Changes in the composition of the gas in the packages were monitored and sensory assessments and microbial and chemical measurements were performed. The fish was caught in bottom trawls in the spring and processed three days after fishing. There was a two-day prolongation during the freshness period and one day for the shelf life of fish in aerated packages (2.7 kg in a tray) compared to air (3.1 kg) in foam plastic, despite a 0.5 ° C difference in the average temperature of the groups and the air group was stored at lower temperatures (‐0.3 ± 0.9 ° C). The greatest temperature fluctuations led to the greatest shortening of the freshness time in air-conditioned packages. Cod saddles stored subcooled at -1.1 ± 0.1 ° C had a shelf life of 13 days. The results of microbial counts and chemical measurements showed the importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum in the formation of TMA in the process of damaging cod necks during both air and air exchange packaging. MAP and subcooling slowed down and changed the damage process. MAP increased drip by 2% in the later stages of storage.

The aim of this study was to compare freshness, quality deterioration and shelf life of CBC (combined blast and contact) ‐treated cod loins packaged in bulk under different atmospheres (air or modified atmosphere, MA) and stored under different temperature profiles to mimic temperature changes during transport and distribution to European markets. Sensory, chemical, microbial and headspace gas composition analyzes were performed regularly. The fish was caught by trawler in the spring and processed 3 days post catch. Following simulation of current sea freight conditions and distribution to European markets, a 2 ‐ day and 1 ‐ day increase in freshness period and shelf life of MA ‐ packaged fish (2.7 kg in trays), respectively, was observed compared to air ‐ stored loins (3.1 kg in EPS boxes). This is despite a mean product temperature difference of 0.5 ° C between the products, being lower (‐0.3 ± 0.9 ° C) for air ‐ stored fish. Abusive conditions had the greatest impact on the reduction of the freshness period for MAP fish. Superchilled storage of MAP loins (‐1.1 ± 0.1 ° C) resulted in a 13 ‐ day shelf life. Evaluation of microbial and chemical indicators emphasized the importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum and TMA formation in the deterioration of cod loins stored in air or MA, while superchilled MAP storage delayed as well as modified the spoilage pattern. MAP increased drip loss by about 2% at late storage.

View report

Reports

Overview on fish quality research - Impact of fish handling, processing, storage and logistics on fish quality deterioration

Published:

01/11/2010

Authors:

Hélène L. Lauzon, Björn Margeirsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, María Guðjónsdóttir, Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Emilia Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, Technology Development Fund and EU IP Chill-on (contract FP6-016333-2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Overview on fish quality research - Impact of fish handling, processing, storage and logistics on fish quality deterioration

The short shelf life of fish is a limiting factor in the export of fresh fish products from Iceland. The initial quality of raw materials, methods of cooling, processing, packaging and conditions during storage and transport are discussed, as well as the effects of all these factors on the freshness and shelf life of fish products. Temperature control is very important to maintain the quality of the fish. Pre-processed fillets have been used to lower the pre-packing temperature. However, care must be taken that the pre-cooling technology does not endanger the microbial condition of the product and thus causes it to be damaged earlier after packaging. The synergistic effects of supercooling and aerated packaging (MAP) can significantly extend the freshness period and shelf life of fish products. Furthermore, packaging methods are examined, including new, more environmentally friendly packaging. Finally, the effect of transport routes of fresh fish products on their final quality to consumers in the market is discussed. This report provides an overview of the research of the Fisheries Research Institute and Matís ohf over the past three decades on the subject. Furthermore, it is discussed how these results can benefit the fishing industry.

The limited shelf life of fresh fish products is a large hurdle for the export of fresh products from Iceland. The influence of raw material quality, cooling methods, processing, packaging and storage conditions on freshness and shelf life extension is discussed. Temperature control is important to maintain fish quality. Pre-cooling of fillets in process has been used to lower the temperature prior to packaging. However, the cooling technique applied should not compromise the microbiological quality of the product and render it vulnerable to faster spoilage postpackaging. Synergism of combined superchilling and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) can lead to a considerable extension of the freshness period and shelf life of fish products. Further, alternative and environmentally-friendly packaging methods are considered. Finally, the impact of transportation mode of fresh fish products on their resulting quality is examined. This report provides an overview of the findings on fish research carried out at Matís (Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories) over the last three decades and further discusses their practicality for the fish processing industry.

View report

Reports

The effect of different cooling techniques on the quality changes and shelf life of whole cod (Gadus morhua)

Published:

01/08/2010

Authors:

Hannes Magnússon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Lárus Þorvaldsson, María Guðjónsdóttir, Hélène L. Lauzon, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Árni R. Rúnarsson, Sveinn H. Magnússon, Jónas R. Viðarsson, Sigurjón Arason, Emilia Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Center for Research and EU (contract FP6-016333-2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of different cooling techniques on the quality changes and shelf life of whole cod (Gadus morhua)

The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the effect of three different cooling methods on the shelf life of whole, gutted cod: (i) Cooling with crushed plate ice, (ii) cooling with liquid ice, (iii) pre-cooling with liquid ice and then cooling with crushed plate ice. Temperature processes were monitored with temperature sensors in all groups during the storage period. Samples were assessed by sensory evaluation, microbial and chemical measurements during the 10 days the fish was stored. The results of microbial and chemical measurements were generally in good agreement with the results of sensory evaluation. Comparison of experimental groups revealed that cod chilled with liquid ice had a shelf life of about two to three days shorter than the other two groups. The shelf life of the cod was considerably shorter than various previous studies have shown, especially in the group that was cooled with liquid ice (only 9-10 days). It is now clear that the cod that was cooled with liquid ice was vanished on board the fishing vessel compared to the other two groups. In addition, refrigerated storage after landing was not as good as might be considered, but the temperature fluctuated between 2-5 ° C. This could possibly explain the shorter shelf life of all groups compared to previous studies.

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of three different cooling methods on the storage quality of whole, bled gutted cod: (i) Cooled with crushed plate ice, (ii) cooled with liquid ice, (iii) pre-cooled in liquid ice and then cooled with crushed plate ice. The temperature history of each group was studied using temperature loggers. The samples were analyzed with sensory, microbiological and chemical methods for up to 10 days from catch. The results from microbial and chemical measurements were generally in good agreement with the results from sensory evaluation. Comparison of the groups showed that the use of liquid ice instead of plate ice resulted in two to three days shorter shelf life than in the other two groups. The shelf life in this study was considerably shorter compared to previous studies with whole cod, especially in the experimental group where liquid ice was used for cooling (only 9-10 days). It is now known that the liquid iced group in this experiment was insufficiently iced on board the fishing vessel compared to the other two groups. Additionally, the ambient temperature in the cold room of the fish plant was relatively high and fluctuated between 2 - 5 ° C during the storage period. This could possibly explain the shorter shelf life of all groups compared to some earlier studies.

View report

Reports

Effect of improved design of wholesale EPS fish boxes on thermal insulation and storage life of cod loins - simulation of air and sea transport

Published:

01/08/2010

Authors:

Björn Margeirsson, Hélène L. Lauzon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Hannes Magnússon, Sigurjón Arason, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

EU (contract FP6-016333-2) Chill-on, AVS Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland (project no. R037-08), Technology Development Fund of the Icelandic Center for Research (project. No. 081304508), University of Iceland Research Fund

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Effect of improved design of wholesale EPS fish boxes on thermal insulation and storage life of cod loins - simulation of air and sea transport

The aim of the experiments was to investigate how well two types of foam boxes protect cod neck pieces from the typical heat load in an air transport chain from a producer in northern Iceland to a buyer in Europe. Temperature measurements, sensory evaluation, chemical and microbial measurements were used to compare the foam boxes and examine the importance of the location of fillet pieces within the box (corner and center). Finally, the shelf life of neck pieces subjected to typical air transport temperature load was compared to the shelf life of neck pieces with stable -1 ° C storage, which is a viable option for container transport by ship. The new foam box, designed with the FLUENT heat transfer model, proved to be better than the older box in terms of thermal insulation. The temperature load on the first day of the experiment caused the highest product temperature in the corners to rise to 5.4 ° C in the older model but only to 4.5 ° C in the new model. The difference between the highest product temperature in the middle and the corners of the box was about 2 to 3 ° C. Sensory evaluation showed that storage in the new foam box led to a two to three day longer freshness period and one to two days longer shelf life with regard to storage in the older foam box. However, the differences between the boxes were not confirmed by chemical and microbial measurements. Position within the box (angle and center) did not significantly affect sensory evaluation results and there was only a small difference between placements in TVB-N and TMA measurements. Simulation of air and sea transport (temperature fluctuations and constant temperature) revealed that for well-cooled cod necks, one can expect one to five days longer freshness period and about three to five days longer shelf life in well-controlled sea transport compared to a typical air transport process from the North. As sea transport from Iceland often takes about four to five days longer than air transport (depending on, among other things, the day of the week and the location of the processing), this shows that sea transport is a viable option for Icelandic fresh fish producers. With the use of the new foam boxes in air transport, however, the fish will have a longer freshness period when it comes into the hands of buyers abroad than in shipping.

2nd edition, March 2011

In the previous version of the report, it was not considered clear enough that the environmental temperature trajectory that was to be simulated by sea transport was in fact based on more or less the best possible conditions in the sea transport chains of fresh fish products from Iceland. Temperature measurements in the cooling projects The simulation of cooling processes and Chill-on have shown that domestic transport is often accompanied by an undesirable temperature load for several hours. whether it is air or sea transport chains. This heat load was taken into account in the case of the airline chain and not the maritime transport chain in the first edition of the report. Most emphasis was on the length of shelf life in the previous edition of the report, but a discussion on the period of freshness is added in its new edition.

The aim of the study was to investigate the performance of two different types of EPS boxes in protecting pre-chilled, fresh fish products subject to temperature conditions, which are likely to occur during air- and land based, multimodal transport from a processor in North -Iceland to a wholesaler in Europe. The performance of the EPS boxes was evaluated by means of temperature monitoring, chemical- and microbial measurements and finally sensory evaluation. Furthermore, effect of fillet positions inside the wholesale fish packages (corner vs. middle) were investigated by means of the aforementioned methods. Finally, the shelf life of the air-transported simulation fish loins was compared to the shelf life of fish loins stored at around -1 ° C, which can be achieved during non-interrupted and well temperature-controlled, containerized sea transport. The new box, designed with a numerical FLUENT heat transfer model, proved to be better with regard to thermal insulation than the old box. The thermal load during the first day of the experiment caused the maximum product temperatures in the bottom corners of the top and second top to rise to 5.4 ° C and 4.5 ° C for the original and new boxes, respectively. The maximum temperature in the middle of the boxes was around 2 to 3 ° C lower than the maximum temperature in the bottom corners. According to sensory evaluation, storage in the new boxes resulted in approximately two to three days longer freshness period and one to two days longer shelf life than storage in the old boxes. The difference between the two box types is not as clear with regard to chemical and microbial measurements.

The sampling location (corner versus middle), did not significantly affect the sensory quality and only minor differences were noticed in TVB-N and TMA between sampling locations in the new box. Comparing the steady and dynamic storage in the old boxes it can be concluded that the increased freshness period (around 1-5 days) and shelf life (around 3-5 days) at steady temperature could compensate for the longer transport time by sea instead of air freight. This makes containerized sea transport a worthy choice for Icelandic fresh fish manufacturers depending on the week day and location of processing. However, for maximum remaining freshness period at the time of delivery to the buyer in Europe the results showed that air transport with the new boxes is the more advantageous transport mode relying on shorter transport time and improved thermal protection of the new boxes.

View report

Reports

Development of Quality Index Method and shelf life of thawed mackerel (Scomber scombrus) / Development of Quality Index Method and storage life of thawed mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

Published:

01/07/2010

Authors:

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Patricia Miranda Alfama, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund, UNU School of Fisheries, United Nations University

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Development of Quality Index Method and shelf life of thawed mackerel (Scomber scombrus) / Development of Quality Index Method and storage life of thawed mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

The QIM method (Quality Index Method) is an objective, fast and reliable sensory evaluation method that has been developed to assess the freshness of fish. The aim of the study was to prepare a QIM rating scale for thawed mackerel (Scomber scombrus) stored in ice at 0 ° C and to test its use in a shelf life test. The mackerel was evaluated by sensory evaluation according to QIM and DA method (generic descriptive analysis), microorganisms (TVC and H2S producing) were also counted and histamine was measured for up to 9 days after thawing. The result of the study was the QIM method for thawed mackerel which was developed and tested in a shelf life test. Quality factor - QI (total grade) increased linearly with ice shelf life. The QIM method for thawed mackerel is based on an assessment of quality factors such as the appearance of redness, texture, color and shape of the eyes, the color and odor of the gills, the appearance of mucus in the gill and gill leaf and the intestinal dissolution, and the total fish can reach a maximum of 19. The project also developed a method (general descriptive analysis-DA) for evaluating boiled mackerel. The main characteristics of the mackerel immediately after thawing were the smell and taste of fresh oil, the smell of metal and the sweet smell / taste that faded with the storage period. What limited the shelf life were sensory properties that describe the symptoms of damage, such as the stench and taste that can be noticeable in fatty fish after prolonged cold storage. According to a sensory assessment of boiled mackerel fillets, the shelf life of thawed mackerel after five months of cold storage is about 4-6 days. The total number of micro-organisms and H2S-producing micro-organisms was lower than is usually seen at the end of the shelf-life of micro-organisms. Histamine was not detected (<5 ppm) in thawed mackerel during the 9-day ice-storage period.

The Quality Index Method (QIM) is an objective, rapid and reliable sensory method. The aim of the present study was to develop a QIM scheme for frozenthawed Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) stored in ice at 0 ° C and evaluate the scheme in a shelf life study. The mackerel was evaluated with sensory evaluation (QIM and generic descriptive analysis (DA)), microbial counts (Total viable counts (TVC) and H2S-producing bacteria) were estimated and histamine measured for up to nine days. The main result of this study vas the QIM scheme to evaluate freshness of frozen-thawed Atlantic mackerel storage in ice which was developed and tested in a shelf life study. The quality index - QI (sum of scores) increased linearly with storage time on ice. The QIM for thawed mackerel is based on the evaluation of quality parameters dealing with the appearance on back and belly side, texture, color and shape of eyes, mucus, color and odor of gills and appearance of gill filaments and dissolution of viscera. The maximum sum of scores (QI) can be 19. A method to evaluate cooked mackerel was also developed (general descriptive analysis-DA). Newly thawed mackerel had fresh oil, metallic and sweet odors and flavors. The main limitation of shelf life in chilled storage after thawing were sensory characteristics describing spoilage such as rancid odor and flavor which can be prominent in fatty fish species after extended frozen storage. According to sensory evaluation of cooked mackerel, the shelf life of thawed mackerel after five months of frozen storage is around 4-6 days. Counts of TVC and H2S producing bacteria were relatively low at the end of shelf life. Histamine was not detected (<5 ppm) in the thawed mackerel during the storage time of nine days on ice.

View report

Reports

Shelf life of vacuum ‐ packed smoked herring fillets

Published:

01/06/2010

Authors:

Franklín Georgsson, Margeir Gissurarson

Supported by:

AVS Fisheries Research Fund

Shelf life of vacuum ‐ packed smoked herring fillets

The aim of the study was to examine the shelf life of smoked herring fillets in vacuum-packed packaging and to examine its effect on the shelf life of the product if preservatives are not used and if sorbate is used instead of benzoate, which is used in conventional production. This study showed that the use of preservatives has a significant effect on the shelf life of smoked herring fillets. It was also stated that the sorbate treatment of herring fillets provided the best preservation against microbial growth and also the sorbate treatment of herring fillets proved to be the best in informal sensory evaluation. Whether this is due to the sorbate's inhibition of microbial growth or whether it reduces the rate of chemical and physical degradation factors compared to herring fillets with benzoate or without preservatives needs further research.

The object of this project was to evaluate the shelf life of vacuum packed smoked herring fillets and to evaluate whether the use of the preservatives benzoate or sorbate had any effect on the shelf life of the product Results showed that treatment of the smoked herring fillets with preservatives greatly affected the shelf life and that sorbate treatment of the herring fillets provided the best defense for bacteria growth and also gave best results in an informal sensory testing during the shelf life study. Whether this is due to inhibitory role of sorbate on bacteria growth or that sorbate slows down chemical and physical degradation in comparison to herring fillets with benzoate or without any preservatives needs further investigation.  

View report

Reports

The effect of cooling methods at processing and use of gel-packs on storage life of cod (Gadus morhua) loins - Effect of transport via air and sea on temperature control and retail-packaging on cod deterioration

Published:

01/05/2010

Authors:

Emilia Martinsdóttir, Hélène L. Lauzon, Björn Margeirsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Lárus Þorvaldsson, Hannes Magnússon, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Arna Vigdís Jónsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Maria Eden

Supported by:

EU (contract FP6-016333-2) Chill-on, AVS, R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Center for Research

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of cooling methods at processing and use of gel-packs on storage life of cod (Gadus morhua) loins - Effect of transport via air and sea on temperature control and retail-packaging on cod deterioration

The purpose of the experiments was to investigate the effect of different cooling during processing and temperature fluctuations in transport with and without a cooling mat on the shelf life of cod necks. In processing, it was compared to use no pre-cooling for filleting, liquid cooling and skin cooling (CBC) which is always liquid-cooled. The effect of simulated temperature fluctuations in transport temperature changes (RTS) was compared with storage at a constant temperature (-1 ° C). The effects of using a cooling mat in storage and transport were also assessed. Samples were quality assessed by sensory evaluation, microbial and chemical measurements. Temperature was monitored with thermometers. Skimmed cod fillets in foam plastic boxes were transported to Bremerhaven by air and ship, where they were repackaged in air and aerated packages (MAP) and stored at 1 ° C. Chemical and microbiological measurements were performed to monitor quality changes. The temperature of the erythema necrosis was lower than in the first 2 days of the experiment. The cooling mats had a certain effect of lowering the temperature when temperature fluctuations were in the process and lower temperatures were maintained throughout the storage period. However, the use did not affect the duration of freshness or shelf life according to sensory evaluation. The number of microorganisms was somewhat lower if temperature fluctuations occurred in the process, but there was little difference at a constant temperature. Storage at a constant, low temperature (-1 ° C) prolonged shelf life by approx. 3 days according to sensory evaluation and it was in accordance with microbial counts and measurements of TVB-N and TMA. Experiments in Bremerhaven showed that the number of microorganisms was generally lower when using aerated packaging compared to airborne fish. This was especially noticeable in the flying fish. The fish transported by ship was still stored for as long as the fish transported by air. This is due to the fact that the flying fish experienced greater temperature fluctuations during transport and its surface temperature measured 4 ° C on arrival in Bremerhaven. The transport time by ship was much longer (+48 hours) but the surface temperature was below 2 ° C on receipt. The use of cooling mats had little effect on the temperature during transport, but nevertheless the surface temperature was slightly lower in fish with cooling mats on arrival in Bremerhaven both by air and by ship.

The main aim of the experiment was to investigate the effects of different cooling techniques during processing and temperature fluctuations during transport on the storage life of cod loins with and without gel packs. The following cooling techniques were studied: combined blast and contact (CBC) cooling (with liquid cooling prior to the CBC cooling), only liquid cooling and where no special cooling was used prior to deskinning and trimming. The effect of real temperature simulation (RTS) during storage was compared to a steady storage temperature of -1 ° C. The samples were analyzed with sensory, microbial and chemical methods. The temperature was monitored from packaging using temperature loggers. CBC cooled loins were transported to Bremerhaven via air and ship freight after packaging in EPS boxes. The fish was repacked in air and modified atmosphere and stored at 1 ° C. Deteriorative changes were evaluated by microbial and chemical indicators. CBC cooling resulted in a lower temperature profile the first two days of the experiment. The use of gel packs lowered somewhat the temperature increase in the products when RTS was applied and lower temperature was maintained during the entire storage period. According to sensory evaluation, the use of gel packs did not result in prolonged freshness period or shelf life. According to microbial and chemical analysis no marked difference was seen whether gel packs were used or not in groups stored at a steady temperature. However, microbial counts were somewhat lower and slower formation of TVB-N and TMA occurred in RTS groups where gel packs were used compared to no gel packs. Storage at a steady -1 ° C resulted in extended shelf life of three days according to sensory evaluation. This was confirmed by microbial and chemical analysis as lower microbial counts, TVB-N and TMA values were generally obtained in the steady temperature group than in the group receiving the RTS treatment. The storage studies carried out at Bremerhaven on modified atmosphere vs. air packed loins showed generally lower microbial counts, especially in the air transported fish. Deterioration process of air and sea freight fish was however similar. Re-packaging of sea freight fish at a later stage did not significantly affect its deteriorative process compared to re-packed air freight fish. This might be due to the fact, that the air freight fish was subject to high temperatures during transport and surface temperature reached over 4 ° C. The sea freight fish had a much longer transport phase, but arrived with surface temperatures below 2 ° C. This shows that not only the time of re-packaging but also the temperature profile during transport are important factors influencing the deteriorative process and shelf life. Gel packs did not have significant cooling effect in this experiment. However the surface temperature in boxes with a gel pack was slightly lower than in boxes without a gel pack independently of transport mode used.

View report
EN